Tetrodotoxin

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Cat.No. 1078 - Tetrodotoxin | C11H17N3O8 | CAS No. 4368-28-9
Description: Na+ channel blocker
Alternative Names: TTx
Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol
Datasheet
Citations (312)
Reviews (1)
Literature

Biological Activity

Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.

Technical Data

M. Wt 319.27
Formula C11H17N3O8
Storage Desiccate at -20°C
CAS Number 4368-28-9
PubChem ID 16759596
InChI Key CFMYXEVWODSLAX-CKYAAQHSSA-N
Smiles OC1(CO)[C@H](O4)C(O)[C@@]2([C@@H]([C@@H](O)N3)C1O[C@](O)4[C@H]2O)NC3=N

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
acidic buffer (pH 4.8) 0.96 3

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 319.27. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.03 mM 104.4 mL 522.02 mL 1044.05 mL
0.15 mM 20.88 mL 104.4 mL 208.81 mL
0.3 mM 10.44 mL 52.2 mL 104.4 mL
1.5 mM 2.09 mL 10.44 mL 20.88 mL

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Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Gleitz et al (1996) The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles. Neuropharmacology 35 1743 PMID: 9076753

Kao (1972) Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Fed.Proc. 31 1117 PMID: 5032475

Kao (1986) Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 479 52 PMID: 2434008

Merck Index 12 9382


If you know of a relevant reference for Tetrodotoxin, please let us know.

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Keywords: Tetrodotoxin, Tetrodotoxin supplier, Na+, channel, blockers, Sodium, NaV, Channels, voltage-gated, voltage-dependent, TTx, Voltage-gated, 1078, Tocris Bioscience

312 Citations for Tetrodotoxin

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

Green and Thayer et al (2019) HIV gp120 upregulates tonic inhibition through α5-containing GABAARs. Neuropharmacology 149 161 PMID: 30797029

Shen et al (2019) Structures of human Nav1.7 channel in complex with auxiliary subunits and animal toxins. Science 363 1303 PMID: 30765606

Bülow et al (2019) Homeostatic Intrinsic Plasticity Is Functionally Altered in Fmr1 KO Cortical Neurons. Cell Rep 26 1378 PMID: 30726724

Paul et al (2017) Transcriptional Architecture of Synaptic Communication Delineates GABAergic Neuron Identity. Cell 171 522 PMID: 28942923

Astorga et al (2015) An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo. Front Cell Neurosci 9 275 PMID: 26236197

Salvitti et al (2015) No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida). Toxins (Basel) 7 255 PMID: 25635464

Jang et al (2015) Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Mol Brain 8 55 PMID: 26391783

Noh et al (2015) ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 6820 PMID: 25538301

Hou et al (2015) MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Nat Commun 6 10045 PMID: 26620774

Lin et al (2015) Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice. Sci Rep 5 12095 PMID: 26160593

Tang et al (2015) Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP. J Neurosci 35 3016 PMID: 25698739

Cao et al (2015) Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons. Mar Drugs 13 903 PMID: 25675001

Speed et al (2015) Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits. J Neurosci 35 9648 PMID: 26134648

Xue et al (2015) Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 E4316 PMID: 26195798

Siddoway et al (2013) An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling. J Neurophysiol 33 11206 PMID: 23825423

Tian et al (2013) Characterization of induced neural progenitors from skin fibroblasts by a novel combination of defined factors. PLoS One 3 1345 PMID: 23439431

Cho et al (2013) Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration. J Neurosci 155 894 PMID: 24209626

Zoppellaro et al (2013) Adenosine-mediated enteric neuromuscular function is affected during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rat enteric nervous system. J Neurosci 8 e72648 PMID: 24015268

Gunn et al (2013) Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response. Nat Commun 33 19534 PMID: 24336719

Sohn et al (2013) Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Front Behav Neurosci 152 612 PMID: 23374353

Malmersjö et al (2013) Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation. Nat Commun 110 E1524 PMID: 23576737

Medrihan et al (2013) Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels. PLoS One 4 1512 PMID: 23443540

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116 PMID: 21249195

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in DA neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103 PMID: 22114279

Niesmann et al (2011) Dendritic spine formation and synaptic function require neurobeachin. Nat Commun 2 557 PMID: 22109531

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by IF.-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384 PMID: 22153080

Wang et al (2011) A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function. Neuron 72 789 PMID: 22153375

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753 PMID: 21228184

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908 PMID: 21642956

Luu and Malenka (2008) Spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation in ventral tegmental area DA cells requires PKC. J Neurophysiol 100 533 PMID: 18450581

Avshalumov et al (2008) AMPA receptor-dependent H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons but not DA axons: one source of a retrograde signal that can inhibit DA release. J Neurophysiol 100 1590 PMID: 18632893

Kelley et al (2008) Ischemic insult to cerebellar Purkinje cells causes diminished GABAA receptor function and allopregnanolone neuroprotection is associated with GABAA receptor stabilization. J Neurochem 107 668 PMID: 18699862

Azad et al (2008) Activation of CB1 specifically located on GABAergic interneurons inhibits LTD in the lateral amygdala. Learn Mem 15 143 PMID: 18323569

Sasse et al (2007) Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, a potential pacemaking mechanism in early embryonic heart cells. J Gen Physiol 130 133 PMID: 17664344

Yang (2007) Modulation of inhibitory activity by nitric oxide in the thalamus. J Neurophysiol 97 3386 PMID: 17376843

Li et al (2018) Hypothalamic Circuits for Predation and Evasion. Neuron 97 911 PMID: 29398361

Fan et al (2018) All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of ketamine-induced disinhibition. Nat Methods 15 823 PMID: 30275587

Prigge et al (2016) M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina The Journal of Neuroscience 6 7184 PMID: 27383593

Miyamoto et al (2016) Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity. PLoS Pathog 291 1719 PMID: 26589795

Cheadle and Biederer (2014) Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1. J Neurophysiol 34 7999 PMID: 24899721

Tabarean (2014) Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 9 e96643 PMID: 24797243

Varodayan and Harrison (2014) HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release. J Neurosci 7 89 PMID: 24376402

Hook et al (2012) DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat. PLoS One 35 507 PMID: 22304466

Gao et al (2012) Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent regulation of liver-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus diminished in the type 1 diabetic mouse. Front Integr Neurosci 61 1381 PMID: 22492526

Yamamoto et al (2012) Raf kinase inhibitory protein is required for cerebellar long-term synaptic depression by mediating PKC-dependent MAPK activation. Front Neural Circuits 32 14254 PMID: 23055494

Hagiwara et al (2012) Optophysiological analysis of associational circuits in the olfactory cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 6 18 PMID: 22529781

Niwa et al (2012) Gephyrin-independent GABA(A)R mobility and clustering during plasticity. J Comp Neurol 7 e36148 PMID: 22563445

Jacus et al (2012) Presynaptic Cav3.2 channels regulate excitatory neurotransmission in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons. Neuropharmacology 32 9374 PMID: 22764245

Saliba et al (2012) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current. Development 31 2937 PMID: 22531784

Chacón et al (2012) Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth. PLoS One 139 3200 PMID: 22872087

Zhang et al (2012) Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina. Front Cell Neurosci 7 e42647 PMID: 22880066

Schnell et al (2011) Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex. Sci Rep 6 e26309 PMID: 22039458

Kaminski et al (2011) 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. Eur J Neurosci 60 1098 PMID: 20883706

Zhong et al (2011) Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 33 244 PMID: 21198977

Shinoda et al (2011) Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. J Neurosci 108 373 PMID: 21173225

Abe et al (2011) The Etv1/Er81 transcription factor orchestrates activity-dependent gene regulation in the terminal maturation program of cerebellar granule cells. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 108 12497 PMID: 21746923

Kim et al (2011) Alterations of colonic contractility in long-term diabetic rat model. Br J Pharmacol 17 372 PMID: 22148106

Lin et al (2011) AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking. Oxid Med Cell Longev 31 1323 PMID: 21273417

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. Front Pediatr 31 10189 PMID: 21752995

Mah et al (2010) Selected SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family proteins regulate synapse formation. BMC Neurosci 30 5559 PMID: 20410109

Kim et al (2010) Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation triggers production and release of Alzheimer's amyloid(β)42 from isolated intact nerve terminals. J Neurophysiol 30 3870 PMID: 20237257

Kim et al (2010) Non-cardiomyocytes influence the electrophysiological maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes during differentiation. J Neurosci 19 783 PMID: 20001453

Yeh et al (2010) SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. J Neurosci 6 e1001207 PMID: 21124874

Farkas et al (2010) Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling reduces GABAergic synaptic transmission to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci 151 5818 PMID: 20926585

Léveillé et al (2010) Excitotoxic insults lead to peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation. Eur J Neurosci 2 110 PMID: 20357934

Gonzalez-Islas et al (2010) GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential. J Neurosci 30 13016 PMID: 20881119

Merriam et al (2010) Somatic ATP release from guinea pig sympathetic neurons does not require calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores. Cell 299 C836 PMID: 20668213

Messa et al (2010) Tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I by Src regulates synaptic-vesicle trafficking. Neuropharmacology 123 2256 PMID: 20530578

Gittis et al (2010) Mechanisms of sustained high firing rates in two classes of vestibular nucleus neurons: differential contributions of resurgent Na, Kv3, and BK currents. J Neurosci 104 1625 PMID: 20592126

Hruska and Nishi (2007) Cell-autonomous inhibition of alpha 7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents death of parasympathetic neurons during development. J Neurosci 27 11501 PMID: 17959793

Gomez-Pinilla et al (2007) Aging impairs neurogenic contraction in guinea pig urinary bladder: role of oxidative stress and melatonin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293 R793 PMID: 17522125

Duguid et al (2007) Somatodendritic release of glutamate regulates synaptic inhibition in cerebellar Purkinje cells via autocrine mGluR1 activation. J Neurosci 27 12464 PMID: 18003824

Zhu et al (2007) Tyramine excites rat subthalamic neurons in vitro by a DA-dependent mechanism. Neuropharmacology 52 1169 PMID: 17291545

Volgin and Kubin (2007) Regionally selective effects of GABA on hypothalamic GABAA receptor mRNA in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 353 726 PMID: 17188647

Milenković et al (2007) Development of chloride-mediated inhibition in neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J Neurophysiol 98 1634 PMID: 17596413

Woo et al (2007) Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release. Neuron 54 599 PMID: 17521572

Nakamoto et al (2007) Fragile X mental retardation protein deficiency leads to excessive mGluR5-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 15537 PMID: 17881561

Baldelli et al (2007) Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses. J Neurosci 27 13520 PMID: 18057210

Vidal et al (2016) Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Dendritic Spine Density by PirB. Eneuro 3 PMID: 27752542

Mauger et al (2016) Targeted Intron Retention and Excision for Rapid Gene Regulation in Response to Neuronal Activity. Neuron 92 1266 PMID: 28009274

Whitt et al (2016) BK channel inactivation gates daytime excitability in the circadian clock. Nat Commun 7 10837 PMID: 26940770

Dukoff et al (2014) Scavenging ROS dramatically increase NMDA receptor whole-cell currents in painted turtle cortical neurons. J Exp Biol 217 3346 PMID: 25063855

Cilz et al (2014) DArgic modulation of GABAergic transmission in the entorhinal cortex: concerted roles of α1 adrenoreceptors, inward rectifier K+, and T-type Ca2+ channels. Cereb Cortex 24 3195 PMID: 23843440

Verstegen et al (2014) Phosphorylation of synapsin I by cyclin-dependent kinase-5 sets the ratio between the resting and recycling pools of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci 34 7266 PMID: 24849359

Gaamouch et al (2012) Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity. J Neurosci 32 10767 PMID: 22855824

Tan et al (2012) Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival. BMC Neurosci 13 48 PMID: 22607375

Ross et al (2012) Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302 C1152 PMID: 22189556

Shulga et al (2012) The loop diuretic bumet. blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons. J Neurosci 32 1757 PMID: 22302815

Fortin et al (2012) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. J Neurosci 32 8127 PMID: 22699894

Mesfin et al (2012) In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons. J Neurotrauma 29 1982 PMID: 22435660

Leão et al (2012) OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nat Neurosci 15 1524 PMID: 23042082

You et al (2012) Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-MthD.-aspartate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 1737 PMID: 22307640

Mitra et al (2012) Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity. Nat Neurosci 15 250 PMID: 22179109

Saszik and DeVries (2012) A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light. J Neurosci 32 297 PMID: 22219291

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040

Kim and Alger (2010) Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses. Nat Neurosci 13 592 PMID: 20348918

Higley and Sabatini (2010) Competitive regulation of synaptic Ca2+ influx by D2 DA and A2A adenosine receptors. Nat Neurosci 13 958 PMID: 20601948

Gómez-Gonzalo et al (2010) An excitatory loop with astrocytes contributes to drive neurons to seizure threshold. PLoS Biol 8 e1000352 PMID: 20405049

Lin et al (2010) Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) induces actin assembly in dendritic spines to promote their development and potentiate synaptic strength. J Biol Chem 285 36010 PMID: 20826790

Kaneko et al (2010) Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 19026 PMID: 20937865

Lorier et al (2010) Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy. PLoS One 5 e8766 PMID: 20098731

Fu and Pol (2010) Kisspeptin directly excites anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons but inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y cells by an indirect synaptic mechanism. J Neurosci 30 10205 PMID: 20668204

Ziskin et al (2007) Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter. Br J Pharmacol 10 321 PMID: 17293857

Jensen et al (2007) Presynaptic plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3. Endocrinology 579 85 PMID: 17170045

Angelo et al (2007) Local and global effects of I(h) distribution in dendrites of mammalian neurons. J Neurosci 27 8643 PMID: 17687042

O'Riordan et al (2006) Regulation of nuclear factor κB in the hippocampus by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 26 4870 PMID: 16672661

Surges et al (2006) Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus. J Neurosci 24 94 PMID: 16882011

Linnemann et al (2006) Transient change in GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression in Lurcher cerebellar nuclei during Purkinje cell degeneration. J Neurosci 7 59 PMID: 16872511

Jaekel et al (2006) Neuroprotection associated with alternative splicing of NMDA receptors in rat cortical neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 147 622 PMID: 16314856

Qiu et al (2006) Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus. J Biol Chem 26 12943 PMID: 17167084

Sun et al (2018) OXT Relieves Neuropathic Pain Through GABA Release and Presynaptic TRPV1 Inhibition in Spinal Cord. Front Mol Neurosci 11 248 PMID: 30065629

Zhang et al (2018) Pauses in Cholinergic Interneuron Activity Are Driven by Excitatory Input and Delayed Rectification, with DA Modulation. Neuron 98 918 PMID: 29754751

Purkey et al (2018) AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP. Cell Rep 25 974 PMID: 30355502

Smith et al (2018) Calcium Channel CaV2.3 Subunits Regulate Hepatic Glucose Production by Modulating Leptin-Induced Excitation of Arcuate Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons. Cell Rep 25 278 PMID: 30304668

Borgs et al (2016) DArgic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects. Scientific Reports 6 33377 PMID: 27640816

Selten et al (2016) Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia. Scientific Reports 6 34240 PMID: 27687783

Di Castro et al (2016) The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area. Scientific Reports 6 34633 PMID: 27721466

Zhang et al (2016) Increased Activity of Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 2 (Shp2) Regulates Activity-dependent AMPA Receptor Trafficking. J Biol Chem 291 18856 PMID: 27417137

Gray and Golowasch (2016) Voltage Dependence of a Neuromodulator-Activated Ionic Current. Eneuro 3 PMID: 27257619

Fan et al (2016) Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice. Front Cell Neurosci 10 74 PMID: 27047338

Beckley et al (2016) The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens DA D1 Receptor Neurons. J Neurosci 36 701 PMID: 26791202

Savell et al (2016) Extra-coding RNAs regulate neuronal DNA methylation dynamics. Nat Commun 7 12091 PMID: 27384705

Karaki et al (2016) Effects of ε-viniferin, a dehydrodimer of resveratrol, on transepithelial active ion transport and ion permeability in the rat small and large intestinal mucosa. Physiol Rep 4 PMID: 27162263

Savtchenko et al (2015) Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity. PLoS One 6 6597 PMID: 25798861

Svalø et al (2015) Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction. J Neurosci 10 e0117350 PMID: 25692982

Elgueta et al (2015) Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells. Physiol Rep 9 6 PMID: 25709566

Cuthbert et al (2015) Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways. Oncotarget 3 PMID: 26059031

Virsolvy et al (2015) Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranol. Nat Commun 5 17969 PMID: 26655634

Laprell et al (2015) Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch. Sci Rep 6 8076 PMID: 26311290

Tang et al (2015) Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex. Stem Cells 5 14099 PMID: 26370265

Pisano et al (2015) Combination of miRNA499 and miRNA133 exerts a synergic effect on cardiac differentiation. Biomed Res Int 33 1187 PMID: 25534971

Nguyen et al (2015) Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes. Front Cell Neurosci 2015 973235 PMID: 26380310

Yang et al (2015) The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels. Ann Clin Transl Neurol 9 469 PMID: 26696828

Witts et al (2015) Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice. PLoS One 114 2305 PMID: 26311185

Bryant et al (2015) Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network. Mol Brain 35 761 PMID: 25589769

Park et al (2015) Channel-mediated astrocytic glutamate modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating postsynaptic NMDA receptors. J Biomed Sci 8 7 PMID: 25645137

Wu et al (2015) Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 22 94 PMID: 26494028

Scharinger et al (2015) Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain. J Cell Biol 9 309 PMID: 26379493

Vossel et al (2015) Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β. Elife 209 419 PMID: 25963821

Saunders et al (2015) Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons. Sci Rep 4 PMID: 25723967

Asano et al (2015) Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes. Curr Mol Med 5 8317 PMID: 25661648

Kano et al (2015) Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy. Stem Cell Res Ther 15 138 PMID: 25732146

Morini et al (2015) Subventricular zone neural progenitors reverse TNF-α effects in cortical neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 6 166 PMID: 26345473

Chen et al (2015) Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats. J Neurosci 9 206 PMID: 26074773

Ifrim et al (2015) Single-Molecule Imaging of PSD-95 mRNA Translation in Dendrites and Its Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Nat Neurosci 35 7116 PMID: 25948262

Deidda et al (2015) Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex. J Neurosci 18 87 PMID: 25485756

Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. J Neurosci 8 425 PMID: 25565960

Stephen et al (2015) Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling. Nat Commun 35 15996 PMID: 26631479

Zhang et al (2015) Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 6 8888 PMID: 26586091

Puranam et al (2015) Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus. Mol Brain 35 8866 PMID: 26063919

Lee et al (2015) N-MthD.-aspartate receptors mediate activity-dependent down-regulation of potassium channel genes during the expression of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity. J Neurosci 8 4 PMID: 25599691

Ganley et al (2015) Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets. Front Synaptic Neurosci 35 7626 PMID: 25972186

Born et al (2015) Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors. Mol Brain 7 3 PMID: 25745399

Pál et al (2015) Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity. Front Cell Neurosci 8 35 PMID: 26043770

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good drug for neuronal activity inhibition.
By Lihua Wang on 01/24/2018
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse

We use this to block cell activity of the brain slices, in order to keep the cells more healthy after they are dissociated. It works great and helps a lot for our purpose; but the only little problem is that it's very hard to dissolve in the water.


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