Tetrodotoxin

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Cat.No. 1078 - Tetrodotoxin | C11H17N3O8 | CAS No. 4368-28-9
Description: Na+ channel blocker
Alternative Names: TTx
Chemical Name: Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol
Datasheet
Citations (211)
Literature

Biological Activity

Selective inhibitor of Na+ channel conductance. Binding is reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Blocks in a use-dependent manner.

Technical Data

M. Wt 319.27
Formula C11H17N3O8
Storage Desiccate at -20°C
CAS Number 4368-28-9
PubChem ID 16759596
InChI Key CFMYXEVWODSLAX-CKYAAQHSSA-N
Smiles OC1(CO)[C@H](O4)C(O)[C@@]2([C@@H]([C@@H](O)N3)C1O[C@](O)4[C@H]2O)NC3=N

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
acidic buffer (pH 4.8) 0.96 3

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 319.27. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 3.13 mL 15.66 mL 31.32 mL
5 mM 0.63 mL 3.13 mL 6.26 mL
10 mM 0.31 mL 1.57 mL 3.13 mL
50 mM 0.06 mL 0.31 mL 0.63 mL

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Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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Safety Datasheet

References

References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Gleitz et al (1996) The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles. Neuropharmacology 35 1743 PMID: 9076753

Kao (1972) Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Fed.Proc. 31 1117 PMID: 5032475

Kao (1986) Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 479 52 PMID: 2434008

Merck Index 12 9382 PMID:


If you know of a relevant reference for Tetrodotoxin, please let us know.

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Keywords: Tetrodotoxin, supplier, Na+, channel, blockers, Sodium, NaV, Channels, voltage-gated, voltage-dependent, TTx, Voltage-gated, Sodium, Channels, Voltage-gated, Sodium, Channels, Tocris Bioscience

211 Citations for Tetrodotoxin

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

Ostrowski et al (2014) Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function. Stem Cells Dev 111 2493 PMID: 24671532

Prabakaran et al (2014) Quantitative profiling of peptides from RNAs classified as noncoding. Sci Rep 5 5429 PMID: 25403355

Diaz et al (2014) Moderate Alcohol Exposure during the Rat Equivalent to the Third Trimester of Human Pregnancy Alters Regulation of GABAA Receptor-Mediated Synaptic Transmission by Dopamine in the Basolateral Amygdala. J Physiol 2 46 PMID: 24904907

Surguy et al (2014) The actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin on neuronal cells. J Neurosci 77 43344 PMID: 24055502

Chen et al (2014) Activation of mGluR2/3 underlies the effects of N-acetylcystein on amygdala-associated autism-like phenotypes in a valproate-induced rat model of autism. Cereb Cortex 8 219 PMID: 24987341

Tabarean (2014) Electrical remodeling of preoptic GABAergic neurons involves the Kv1.5 subunit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 9 e96643 PMID: 24797243

Cheadle and Biederer (2014) Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1. J Neurophysiol 34 7999 PMID: 24899721

Varodayan and Harrison (2014) HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release. J Neurosci 7 89 PMID: 24376402

Sun et al (2013) Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes. PLoS One 8 e69019 PMID: 23904909

Broad et al (2013) Cholinergic interactions between donepezil and prucalopride in human colon: potential to treat severe intestinal dysmotility. Br J Pharmacol 170 1253 PMID: 24032987

Oe et al (2013) Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density. Sci Rep 3 1957 PMID: 23739837

Montarolo et al (2013) Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe)/PS1(L166P) mice. PLoS One 8 e69381 PMID: 23894463

Chau et al (2013) Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals. Mar Drugs 11 2695 PMID: 23917066

Ardelt et al (2013) Stromal derived growth factor-1 (CXCL12) modulates synaptic transmission to immature neurons during post-ischemic cerebral repair. Exp Neurol 248 246 PMID: 23811016

Lee et al (2013) A disinhibitory circuit mediates motor integration in the somatosensory cortex. Nat Neurosci 16 1662 PMID: 24097044

Velmans et al (2013) Plasticity-related gene 3 promotes neurite shaft protrusion. BMC Neurosci 14 36 PMID: 23506325

Thayer et al (2013) Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 1482 PMID: 23297202

Huchzermeyer et al (2013) Oxygen consumption rates during three different neuronal activity states in the hippocampal CA3 network. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33 263 PMID: 23168532

Aracri et al (2013) Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex. Cereb Cortex PMID: 24297328

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553 PMID: 24381506

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897 PMID: 24114844

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634 PMID: 23408424

Woo et al (2013) The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development. J Cell Biol 201 929 PMID: 23751499

Santini et al (2013) Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism. Nature 493 411 PMID: 23263185

Cho et al (2013) SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function. PLoS One 8 e54276 PMID: 23342115

Alpert and Alford (2013) Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons. PLoS One 8 e63154 PMID: 23646190

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497 PMID: 23840491

Gao and Derbenev (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 2637 PMID: 24027107

Tian et al (2013) Characterization of induced neural progenitors from skin fibroblasts by a novel combination of defined factors. PLoS One 3 1345 PMID: 23439431

Cho et al (2013) Injury-induced HDAC5 nuclear export is essential for axon regeneration. J Neurosci 155 894 PMID: 24209626

Sohn et al (2013) Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Front Behav Neurosci 152 612 PMID: 23374353

Zoppellaro et al (2013) Adenosine-mediated enteric neuromuscular function is affected during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of rat enteric nervous system. J Neurosci 8 e72648 PMID: 24015268

Gunn et al (2013) Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response. Nat Commun 33 19534 PMID: 24336719

Siddoway et al (2013) An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling. J Neurophysiol 33 11206 PMID: 23825423

Malmersjö et al (2013) Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation. Nat Commun 110 E1524 PMID: 23576737

Medrihan et al (2013) Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels. PLoS One 4 1512 PMID: 23443540

Gaamouch et al (2012) Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity. J Neurosci 32 10767 PMID: 22855824

Tan et al (2012) Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival. BMC Neurosci 13 48 PMID: 22607375

Ross et al (2012) Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302 C1152 PMID: 22189556

Shulga et al (2012) The loop diuretic bumetanide blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons. J Neurosci 32 1757 PMID: 22302815

Fortin et al (2012) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. J Neurosci 32 8127 PMID: 22699894

Mesfin et al (2012) In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons. J Neurotrauma 29 1982 PMID: 22435660

Leão et al (2012) OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nat Neurosci 15 1524 PMID: 23042082

You et al (2012) Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 1737 PMID: 22307640

Mitra et al (2012) Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity. Nat Neurosci 15 250 PMID: 22179109

Saszik and DeVries (2012) A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light. J Neurosci 32 297 PMID: 22219291

Gao et al (2012) Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-dependent regulation of liver-related neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus diminished in the type 1 diabetic mouse. Front Integr Neurosci 61 1381 PMID: 22492526

Hook et al (2012) Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat. PLoS One 35 507 PMID: 22304466

Yamamoto et al (2012) Raf kinase inhibitory protein is required for cerebellar long-term synaptic depression by mediating PKC-dependent MAPK activation. Front Neural Circuits 32 14254 PMID: 23055494

Hagiwara et al (2012) Optophysiological analysis of associational circuits in the olfactory cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 6 18 PMID: 22529781

Jacus et al (2012) Presynaptic Cav3.2 channels regulate excitatory neurotransmission in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons. Neuropharmacology 32 9374 PMID: 22764245

Saliba et al (2012) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current. Development 31 2937 PMID: 22531784

Chacón et al (2012) Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth. PLoS One 139 3200 PMID: 22872087

Niwa et al (2012) Gephyrin-independent GABA(A)R mobility and clustering during plasticity. J Comp Neurol 7 e36148 PMID: 22563445

Zhang et al (2012) Melanopsin mediates retrograde visual signaling in the retina. Front Cell Neurosci 7 e42647 PMID: 22880066

Nelson and Glitsch (2012) Lack of kinase regulation of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channel-dependent currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Neurosci 287 6326 PMID: 22207762

Lau and Murthy (2012) Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67. J Neurosci 32 8521 PMID: 22723692

Luoma et al (2011) Progesterone inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels is a potential neuroprotective mechanism against excitotoxicity. Steroids 76 845 PMID: 21371490

Meitzen et al (2011) β1-Adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons. J Neurochem 116 984 PMID: 21143600

Sinning et al (2011) Synaptic glutamate release is modulated by the Na+ -driven Cl-/HCO3- exchanger Slc4a8. J Neurosci 31 7300 PMID: 21593314

Krook-Magnuson et al (2011) Ivy and neurogliaform interneurons are a major target of μ-opioid receptor modulation. J Neurosci 31 14861 PMID: 22016519

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116 PMID: 21249195

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103 PMID: 22114279

Niesmann et al (2011) Dendritic spine formation and synaptic function require neurobeachin. Nat Commun 2 557 PMID: 22109531

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384 PMID: 22153080

Wang et al (2011) A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function. Neuron 72 789 PMID: 22153375

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753 PMID: 21228184

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908 PMID: 21642956

Schmidt and Kofuji (2011) Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. J Biol Chem 519 1492 PMID: 21452206

Lin et al (2011) AKAP79/150 impacts intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons through phospho-regulation of A-type K+ channel trafficking. Oxid Med Cell Longev 31 1323 PMID: 21273417

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. Front Pediatr 31 10189 PMID: 21752995

Kaminski et al (2011) 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. Eur J Neurosci 60 1098 PMID: 20883706

Zhong et al (2011) Neurogranin phosphorylation fine-tunes long-term potentiation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 33 244 PMID: 21198977

Shinoda et al (2011) Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. J Neurosci 108 373 PMID: 21173225

Schnell et al (2011) Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex. Sci Rep 6 e26309 PMID: 22039458

Abe et al (2011) The Etv1/Er81 transcription factor orchestrates activity-dependent gene regulation in the terminal maturation program of cerebellar granule cells. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 108 12497 PMID: 21746923

Kim et al (2011) Alterations of colonic contractility in long-term diabetic rat model. Br J Pharmacol 17 372 PMID: 22148106

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040

Kim and Alger (2010) Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses. Nat Neurosci 13 592 PMID: 20348918

Higley and Sabatini (2010) Competitive regulation of synaptic Ca2+ influx by D2 dopamine and A2A adenosine receptors. Nat Neurosci 13 958 PMID: 20601948

Gómez-Gonzalo et al (2010) An excitatory loop with astrocytes contributes to drive neurons to seizure threshold. PLoS Biol 8 e1000352 PMID: 20405049

Lin et al (2010) Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) induces actin assembly in dendritic spines to promote their development and potentiate synaptic strength. J Biol Chem 285 36010 PMID: 20826790

Kaneko et al (2010) Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 19026 PMID: 20937865

Lorier et al (2010) Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy. PLoS One 5 e8766 PMID: 20098731

Fu and Pol (2010) Kisspeptin directly excites anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons but inhibits orexigenic neuropeptide Y cells by an indirect synaptic mechanism. J Neurosci 30 10205 PMID: 20668204

Kim et al (2010) Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation triggers production and release of Alzheimer's amyloid(β)42 from isolated intact nerve terminals. J Neurophysiol 30 3870 PMID: 20237257

Mah et al (2010) Selected SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family proteins regulate synapse formation. BMC Neurosci 30 5559 PMID: 20410109

Yeh et al (2010) SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. J Neurosci 6 e1001207 PMID: 21124874

Farkas et al (2010) Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling reduces GABAergic synaptic transmission to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci 151 5818 PMID: 20926585

Kim et al (2010) Non-cardiomyocytes influence the electrophysiological maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes during differentiation. J Neurosci 19 783 PMID: 20001453

Messa et al (2010) Tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I by Src regulates synaptic-vesicle trafficking. Neuropharmacology 123 2256 PMID: 20530578

Gonzalez-Islas et al (2010) GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential. J Neurosci 30 13016 PMID: 20881119

Merriam et al (2010) Somatic ATP release from guinea pig sympathetic neurons does not require calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores. Cell 299 C836 PMID: 20668213

Léveillé et al (2010) Excitotoxic insults lead to peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation. Eur J Neurosci 2 110 PMID: 20357934

Gittis et al (2010) Mechanisms of sustained high firing rates in two classes of vestibular nucleus neurons: differential contributions of resurgent Na, Kv3, and BK currents. J Neurosci 104 1625 PMID: 20592126

Menuz et al (2009) Critical role for TARPs in early development despite broad functional redundancy. Neuropharmacology 56 22 PMID: 18634809

Francesconi et al (2009) Regulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor trafficking and signaling by the caveolar/lipid raft pathway. J Neurosci 29 3590 PMID: 19295163

Li et al (2009) Activity-dependent modulation of glutamatergic signaling in the developing rat dorsal horn by early tissue injury. J Neurophysiol 102 2208 PMID: 19675290

Zhang and Buckmaster (2009) Dysfunction of the dentate basket cell circuit in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Eur J Neurosci 29 7846 PMID: 19535596

Schmidt and Kofuji (2009) Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 29 476 PMID: 19144848

Citri et al (2009) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Neurosci 30 1443 PMID: 19821836

Sipilä et al (2009) Compensatory enhancement of intrinsic spiking upon NKCC1 disruption in neonatal hippocampus. PLoS One 29 6982 PMID: 19474325

Léveillé et al (2008) Neuronal viability is controlled by a functional relation between synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. FASEB J 22 4258 PMID: 18711223

Peden et al (2008) Developmental maturation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in mouse thalamic ventrobasal neurones. J Physiol 586 965 PMID: 18063661

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040 PMID: 18685029

Adamcio et al (2008) Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. BMC Biol 6 37 PMID: 18782446

Kim and Tsien (2008) Synapse-specific adaptations to inactivity in hippocampal circuits achieve homeostatic gain control while dampening network reverberation. Neuron 58 925 PMID: 18579082

Manning et al (2008) NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia. J Neurophysiol 28 6670 PMID: 18579741

Pozzi et al (2008) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels. J Neurosci 105 323 PMID: 18162553

Kim et al (2008) Aberrant early-phase ERK inactivation impedes neuronal function in fragile X syndrome. Diabetes 105 4429 PMID: 18332424

Biou et al (2008) Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3. Development 105 1038 PMID: 18195348

Bassil et al (2008) Activation of prostaglandin EP receptors by lubiprostone in rat and human stomach and colon. PLoS One 154 126 PMID: 18332851

Soriano et al (2008) Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand. EMBO J 28 10696 PMID: 18923045

Milenković et al (2007) Development of chloride-mediated inhibition in neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J Neurophysiol 98 1634 PMID: 17596413

Woo et al (2007) Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release. Neuron 54 599 PMID: 17521572

Nakamoto et al (2007) Fragile X mental retardation protein deficiency leads to excessive mGluR5-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 15537 PMID: 17881561

Baldelli et al (2007) Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses. J Neurosci 27 13520 PMID: 18057210

Volgin and Kubin (2007) Regionally selective effects of GABA on hypothalamic GABAA receptor mRNA in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 353 726 PMID: 17188647

Angelo et al (2007) Local and global effects of I(h) distribution in dendrites of mammalian neurons. J Neurosci 27 8643 PMID: 17687042

Ziskin et al (2007) Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter. Br J Pharmacol 10 321 PMID: 17293857

Jensen et al (2007) Presynaptic plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3. Endocrinology 579 85 PMID: 17170045

Linnemann et al (2006) Transient change in GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression in Lurcher cerebellar nuclei during Purkinje cell degeneration. J Neurosci 7 59 PMID: 16872511

Qiu et al (2006) Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus. J Biol Chem 26 12943 PMID: 17167084

Jaekel et al (2006) Neuroprotection associated with alternative splicing of NMDA receptors in rat cortical neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 147 622 PMID: 16314856

Surges et al (2006) Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus. J Neurosci 24 94 PMID: 16882011

O'Riordan et al (2006) Regulation of nuclear factor κB in the hippocampus by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 26 4870 PMID: 16672661

König et al (2005) TGF-{beta}1 activates two distinct type I receptors in neurons: implications for neuronal NF-{kappa}B signaling. J Cell Biol 168 1077 PMID: 15781474

Rhee et al (2005) Augmenting neurotransmitter release by enhancing the apparent Ca2+ affinity of synaptotagmin 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 102 18664 PMID: 16352718

Ohba et al (2005) BDNF locally potentiates GABAergic presynaptic machineries: target-selective circuit inhibition. Cell 15 291 PMID: 15238431

Cottrell et al (2004) CPG2: a brain- and synapse-specific protein that regulates the endocytosis of glutamate receptors. Neuron 44 677 PMID: 15541315

Nakatsuka et al (2003) Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord. J Neurophysiol 89 3243 PMID: 12783958

Kola et al The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated through central activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 e1797 PMID: 18335063

Bellono (2017) Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception. Nature 543 391 PMID: 28264196

Chen (2017) Methylene blue inhibits GABAA receptors by interaction with GABA binding site. Neuropharmacology 119 100 PMID: 28390894

Tuesta (2017) GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake. Nat Neurosci 20 708 PMID: 28368384

Prigge et al (2016) M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina The Journal of Neuroscience 6 7184 PMID: 27383593

Miyamoto et al (2016) Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity. PLoS Pathog 291 1719 PMID: 26589795

Borgs et al (2016) Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects. Scientific Reports 6 33377 PMID: 27640816

Selten et al (2016) Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia. Scientific Reports 6 34240 PMID: 27687783

Di Castro et al (2016) The chemokine CXCL16 modulates neurotransmitter release in hippocampal CA1 area. Scientific Reports 6 34633 PMID: 27721466

Astorga et al (2015) An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo. Front Cell Neurosci 9 275 PMID: 26236197

Salvitti et al (2015) No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida). Toxins (Basel) 7 255 PMID: 25635464

Jang et al (2015) Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Mol Brain 8 55 PMID: 26391783

Noh et al (2015) ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 6820 PMID: 25538301

Hou et al (2015) MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Nat Commun 6 10045 PMID: 26620774

Lin et al (2015) Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice. Sci Rep 5 12095 PMID: 26160593

Tang et al (2015) Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP. J Neurosci 35 3016 PMID: 25698739

Cao et al (2015) Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons. Mar Drugs 13 903 PMID: 25675001

Speed et al (2015) Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits. J Neurosci 35 9648 PMID: 26134648

Xue et al (2015) Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 E4316 PMID: 26195798

Bernard and Zhang (2015) MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism. Eur J Neurosci 10 e0124816 PMID: 25932647

Glykys and Staley (2015) Diazepam effect during early neonatal development correlates with neuronal Cl(.). J Cell Sci 2 1055 PMID: 26734658

Elgueta et al (2015) Acetylcholine induces GABA release onto rod bipolar cells through heteromeric nicotinic receptors expressed in A17 amacrine cells. Physiol Rep 9 6 PMID: 25709566

Cuthbert et al (2015) Neural control of submucosal gland and apical membrane secretions in airways. Oncotarget 3 PMID: 26059031

Witts et al (2015) Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice. PLoS One 114 2305 PMID: 26311185

Savtchenko et al (2015) Synaptic GABA release prevents GABA transporter type-1 reversal during excessive network activity. PLoS One 6 6597 PMID: 25798861

Svalø et al (2015) Functional and molecular evidence for Kv7 channel subtypes in human detrusor from patients with and without bladder outflow obstruction. J Neurosci 10 e0117350 PMID: 25692982

Kirwan et al (2015) Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 142 3178 PMID: 26395144

Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. J Neurosci 8 425 PMID: 25565960

Stephen et al (2015) Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling. Nat Commun 35 15996 PMID: 26631479

Zhang et al (2015) Novel RNA- and FMRP-binding protein TRF2-S regulates axonal mRNA transport and presynaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 6 8888 PMID: 26586091

Puranam et al (2015) Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus. Mol Brain 35 8866 PMID: 26063919

Lee et al (2015) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate activity-dependent down-regulation of potassium channel genes during the expression of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity. J Neurosci 8 4 PMID: 25599691

Ganley et al (2015) Inhibitory Interneurons That Express GFP in the PrP-GFP Mouse Spinal Cord Are Morphologically Heterogeneous, Innervated by Several Classes of Primary Afferent and Include Lamina I Projection Neurons among Their Postsynaptic Targets. Front Synaptic Neurosci 35 7626 PMID: 25972186

Born et al (2015) Genetic targeting of NRXN2 in mice unveils role in excitatory cortical synapse function and social behaviors. Mol Brain 7 3 PMID: 25745399

Pál et al (2015) Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity. Front Cell Neurosci 8 35 PMID: 26043770

Gao et al (2015) Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat. J Neurosci 9 384 PMID: 26500490

Zhong et al (2015) BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci 35 4469 PMID: 25762688

Cramer et al (2015) Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse. Mol Cell Biol 35 5664 PMID: 25855180

Wang et al (2015) Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses. PLoS One 35 1712 PMID: 25755278

Erlandson et al (2015) The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation. J Neurosci 10 e0132008 PMID: 26134668

Hooks et al (2015) Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 35 4418 PMID: 25762684

Ghosh et al (2015) Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors. Cell Rep 9 450 PMID: 26635530

Torper et al (2015) In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry. J Neurosci 12 474 PMID: 26166567

Sobieski et al (2015) Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro. J Neurosci 35 11105 PMID: 26245971

Eyo et al (2015) Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium. J Neurosci 35 2417 PMID: 25673836

Sivakumaran et al (2015) Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo. Nat Commun 35 8291 PMID: 26019342

Bryant et al (2015) Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network. Mol Brain 35 761 PMID: 25589769

Park et al (2015) Channel-mediated astrocytic glutamate modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating postsynaptic NMDA receptors. J Biomed Sci 8 7 PMID: 25645137

Wu et al (2015) Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 22 94 PMID: 26494028

Scharinger et al (2015) Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca(2+)-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain. J Cell Biol 9 309 PMID: 26379493

Vossel et al (2015) Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β. Elife 209 419 PMID: 25963821

Saunders et al (2015) Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons. Sci Rep 4 PMID: 25723967

Asano et al (2015) Optogenetic induction of contractile ability in immature C2C12 myotubes. Curr Mol Med 5 8317 PMID: 25661648

Kano et al (2015) Clinical utility of neuronal cells directly converted from fibroblasts of patients for neuropsychiatric disorders: studies of lysosomal storage diseases and channelopathy. Stem Cell Res Ther 15 138 PMID: 25732146

Morini et al (2015) Subventricular zone neural progenitors reverse TNF-α effects in cortical neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 6 166 PMID: 26345473

Chen et al (2015) Inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2 on excitatory synaptic transmission and the neuronal excitability of sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in young rats. J Neurosci 9 206 PMID: 26074773

Ifrim et al (2015) Single-Molecule Imaging of PSD-95 mRNA Translation in Dendrites and Its Dysregulation in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Nat Neurosci 35 7116 PMID: 25948262

Deidda et al (2015) Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex. J Neurosci 18 87 PMID: 25485756

Virsolvy et al (2015) Antagonism of Nav channels and α1-adrenergic receptors contributes to vascular smooth muscle effects of ranolazine. Nat Commun 5 17969 PMID: 26655634

Laprell et al (2015) Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch. Sci Rep 6 8076 PMID: 26311290

Tang et al (2015) Modulation of AMPA receptor mediated current by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in layer I neurons of rat prefrontal cortex. Stem Cells 5 14099 PMID: 26370265

Pisano et al (2015) Combination of miRNA499 and miRNA133 exerts a synergic effect on cardiac differentiation. Biomed Res Int 33 1187 PMID: 25534971

Nguyen et al (2015) Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes. Front Cell Neurosci 2015 973235 PMID: 26380310

Yang et al (2015) The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels. Ann Clin Transl Neurol 9 469 PMID: 26696828

Wilcox et al (2014) Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission. Neuropsychopharmacology 39 579 PMID: 23995582

Lee et al (2014) Long-term depression-inducing stimuli promote cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule NGL-3 through NMDA receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and presenilin/γ-secretase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369 20130158 PMID: 24298159

Leijon and Magnusson (2014) Physiological characterization of vestibular efferent brainstem neurons using a transgenic mouse model. PLoS One 9 e98277 PMID: 24867596

Thomazeau et al (2014) Prefrontal deficits in a murine model overexpressing the down syndrome candidate gene dyrk1a. J Neurosci 34 1138 PMID: 24453307

Gaffaney et al (2014) Mutations that disrupt Ca2+-binding activity endow Doc2β with novel functional properties during synaptic transmission. Mol Biol Cell 25 481 PMID: 24356452

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284 PMID: 24518663

Kim and Ziff (2014) Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. PLoS Biol 12 e1001900 PMID: 24983627

Jiang and Zsombok (2014) Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1. Front Neurosci 7 270 PMID: 24454277

Wang et al (2014) Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 307 G719 PMID: 25147231

Klapoetke et al (2014) Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations. Nat Methods 11 338 PMID: 24509633

An et al (2014) Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis 5 e1523 PMID: 25393479

Wang et al (2014) SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks. PLoS One 8 e83941 PMID: 24391850

Khor et al (2014) Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata. Mar Drugs 12 1 PMID: 24368566

Potts et al (2014) Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming. Neurosurgery 75 472 PMID: 24887289

Mohn et al (2014) Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities. Mol Psychiatry 19 1133 PMID: 24934177

Seluzicki et al (2014) Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior. PLoS Biol 12 e1001810 PMID: 24643294


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