Pricing Availability   Qty
Description: Na+ channel blocker
Alternative Names: TTx
Chemical Name: (4R,4aR,5R,7S,9S,10S,10aR,11S,12S)-Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imino-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]pyrimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (337)
Reviews (5)

Biological Activity for Tetrodotoxin

Tetrodotoxin is a reversible, potent, selective and high affinity inhibitor of voltage gated sodium channels Nav 1.6, 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.7 (IC50 values are 2.3 nM, 4.1 nM, 5.3 nM, 7.6 nM, 14 nM and 36 nM, respectively). Binding is reversible and high affinity (Kd = 1-10 nM). Tetrodotoxin shows antagonism of aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity, analgesic effects in mouse models of neuropathy and prolonged duration of local anesthesia in animals when combined with capsaicin. Tetrodotoxin also shows pH-dependent blockade of canine cardiac L-type Ca2+ (Cav1.x) channels, blocks primary reward in an animal study of drug-seeking lever pressing.

Tetrodotoxin citrate (Cat. No. 1069) also available.

Technical Data for Tetrodotoxin

M. Wt 319.27
Formula C11H17N3O8
Storage Store at -20°C
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 4368-28-9
PubChem ID 16759596
Smiles OC1(CO)[C@H](O4)C(O)[C@@]2([C@@H]([C@@H](O)N3)C1O[C@](O)4[C@H]2O)NC3=N

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for Tetrodotoxin

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
acidic buffer (pH 4.8) 0.96 3

Preparing Stock Solutions for Tetrodotoxin

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 319.27. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.03 mM 104.4 mL 522.02 mL 1044.05 mL
0.15 mM 20.88 mL 104.4 mL 208.81 mL
0.3 mM 10.44 mL 52.2 mL 104.4 mL
1.5 mM 2.09 mL 10.44 mL 20.88 mL

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Product Datasheets for Tetrodotoxin

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for Tetrodotoxin

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Gleitz et al (1996) The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (±)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles. Neuropharmacology 35 1743 PMID: 9076753

Kao (1972) Pharmacology of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin. Fed.Proc. 31 1117 PMID: 5032475

Kao (1986) Structure-activity relations of tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin, and analogues. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 479 52 PMID: 2434008

Merck Index 12 9382

Tsukamoto et al (2017) Differential binding of tetrodotoxin and its derivatives to voltage-sensitive sodium channel subtypes (Nav1.1 to Nav1.7). Br.J.Pharmacol. 174 3881 PMID: 28832970

Ono et al (2013) Antagonistic effects of tetrodotoxin on aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity. J.Nippon Med.Sch. 80 350 PMID: 24189353

Hegyi et al (2013) Tetrodotoxin blockade on canine cardiac L-type Ca²+ channels depends on pH and redox potential. Mar.Drugs 11 2140 PMID: 23771047

Grimm and See (2000) Dissociation of primary and secondary reward-relevant limbic nuclei in an animal model of relapse. Neuropsychopharmacology 22 473 PMID: 10731622

Shomorony et al (2019) Prolonged duration local anesthesia by combined delivery of capsaicin- and tetrodotoxin-loaded liposomes. Anesth.Analg. 129 709 PMID: 31425210

If you know of a relevant reference for Tetrodotoxin, please let us know.

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Keywords: Tetrodotoxin, Tetrodotoxin supplier, Na+, channel, blockers, Sodium, NaV, Channels, voltage-gated, voltage-dependent, TTx, Voltage-gated, 1078, Tocris Bioscience

337 Citations for Tetrodotoxin

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Tetrodotoxin include:

Wilcox et al (2014) Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission. Neuropsychopharmacology 39 579 PMID: 23995582

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Thomazeau et al (2014) Prefrontal deficits in a murine model overexpressing the down syndrome candidate gene dyrk1a. J Neurosci 34 1138 PMID: 24453307

Gaffaney et al (2014) Mutations that disrupt Ca2+-binding activity endow Doc2β with novel functional properties during synaptic transmission. Mol Biol Cell 25 481 PMID: 24356452

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284 PMID: 24518663

Kim and Ziff (2014) Calcineurin mediates synaptic scaling via synaptic trafficking of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. PLoS Biol 12 e1001900 PMID: 24983627

Jiang and Zsombok (2014) Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1. Front Neurosci 7 270 PMID: 24454277

Wang et al (2014) Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 307 G719 PMID: 25147231

Klapoetke et al (2014) Independent optical excitation of distinct neural populations. Nat Methods 11 338 PMID: 24509633

An et al (2014) Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis 5 e1523 PMID: 25393479

Wang et al (2014) SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks. PLoS One 8 e83941 PMID: 24391850

Khor et al (2014) Investigating diet as the source of tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata. Mar Drugs 12 1 PMID: 24368566

Potts et al (2014) Analysis of Mll1 deficiency identifies neurogenic transcriptional modules and Brn4 as a factor for direct astrocyte-to-neuron reprogramming. Neurosurgery 75 472 PMID: 24887289

Mohn et al (2014) Adenomatous polyposis coli protein deletion leads to cognitive and autism-like disabilities. Mol Psychiatry 19 1133 PMID: 24934177

Seluzicki et al (2014) Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior. PLoS Biol 12 e1001810 PMID: 24643294

Sabater et al (2021) Voltage-gated potassium channels ensure action potential shape fidelity in distal axons. J Neurosci 41 5372 PMID: 34001627

Kim and Alger (2010) Reduction in endocannabinoid tone is a homeostatic mechanism for specific inhibitory synapses. Nat Neurosci 13 592 PMID: 20348918

Higley and Sabatini (2010) Competitive regulation of synaptic Ca2+ influx by D2 DA and A2A adenosine receptors. Nat Neurosci 13 958 PMID: 20601948

Gómez-Gonzalo et al (2010) An excitatory loop with astrocytes contributes to drive neurons to seizure threshold. PLoS Biol 8 e1000352 PMID: 20405049

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Kaneko et al (2010) Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 19026 PMID: 20937865

Lorier et al (2010) Opiate-induced suppression of rat hypoglossal motoneuron activity and its reversal by ampakine therapy. PLoS One 5 e8766 PMID: 20098731

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Zhang et al (2018) Pauses in Cholinergic Interneuron Activity Are Driven by Excitatory Input and Delayed Rectification, with DA Modulation. Neuron 98 918 PMID: 29754751

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Purkey et al (2018) AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP. Cell Rep 25 974 PMID: 30355502

Smith et al (2018) Calcium Channel CaV2.3 Subunits Regulate Hepatic Glucose Production by Modulating Leptin-Induced Excitation of Arcuate Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons. Cell Rep 25 278 PMID: 30304668

Citri et al (2009) N-MthD.-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Neurosci 30 1443 PMID: 19821836

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Manning et al (2008) NMDA receptor blockade with Mem. attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia. J Neurophysiol 28 6670 PMID: 18579741

Kim et al (2008) Aberrant early-phase ERK inactivation impedes neuronal function in fragile X syndrome. Diabetes 105 4429 PMID: 18332424

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Paul et al (2017) Transcriptional Architecture of Synaptic Communication Delineates GABAergic Neuron Identity. Cell 171 522 PMID: 28942923

Prigge et al (2016) M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina The Journal of Neuroscience 6 7184 PMID: 27383593

Miyamoto et al (2016) Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity. PLoS Pathog 291 1719 PMID: 26589795

Sun et al (2013) Cell type-specific dependency on the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway for the endogenous Epo and VEGF induction by baicalein in neurons versus astrocytes. PLoS One 8 e69019 PMID: 23904909

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Oe et al (2013) Dendritic spine dynamics in synaptogenesis after repeated LTP inductions: dependence on pre-existing spine density. Sci Rep 3 1957 PMID: 23739837

Montarolo et al (2013) Early enriched environment exposure protects spatial memory and accelerates amyloid plaque formation in APP(Swe)/PS1(L166P) mice. PLoS One 8 e69381 PMID: 23894463

Chau et al (2013) Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable microbes associated with toxic marine animals. Mar Drugs 11 2695 PMID: 23917066

Ardelt et al (2013) Stromal derived growth factor-1 (CXCL12) modulates synaptic transmission to immature neurons during post-ischemic cerebral repair. Exp Neurol 248 246 PMID: 23811016

Lee et al (2013) A disinhibitory circuit mediates motor integration in the somatosensory cortex. Nat Neurosci 16 1662 PMID: 24097044

Velmans et al (2013) Plasticity-related gene 3 promotes neurite shaft protrusion. BMC Neurosci 14 36 PMID: 23506325

Thayer et al (2013) Increased neuronal activity fragments the Golgi complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 1482 PMID: 23297202

Huchzermeyer et al (2013) Oxygen consumption rates during three different neuronal activity states in the hippocampal CA3 network. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33 263 PMID: 23168532

Aracri et al (2013) Hypocretin (Orexin) Regulates Glutamate Input to Fast-Spiking Interneurons in Layer V of the Fr2 Region of the Murine Prefrontal Cortex. Cereb Cortex PMID: 24297328

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553 PMID: 24381506

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897 PMID: 24114844

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634 PMID: 23408424

Woo et al (2013) The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development. J Cell Biol 201 929 PMID: 23751499

Santini et al (2013) Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism. Nature 493 411 PMID: 23263185

Cho et al (2013) SPIN90 phosphorylation modulates spine structure and synaptic function. PLoS One 8 e54276 PMID: 23342115

Alpert and Alford (2013) Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons. PLoS One 8 e63154 PMID: 23646190

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497 PMID: 23840491

Gaamouch et al (2012) Interaction between αCaMKII and GluN2B controls ERK-dependent plasticity. J Neurosci 32 10767 PMID: 22855824

Tan et al (2012) Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID) genes and promotes neuronal survival. BMC Neurosci 13 48 PMID: 22607375

Ross et al (2012) Opioid-induced hypernociception is associated with hyperexcitability and altered tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ channel function of dorsal root ganglia. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302 C1152 PMID: 22189556

Shulga et al (2012) The loop diuretic bumet. blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons. J Neurosci 32 1757 PMID: 22302815

Fortin et al (2012) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. J Neurosci 32 8127 PMID: 22699894

Mesfin et al (2012) In vitro stretch injury induces time- and severity-dependent alterations of STEP phosphorylation and proteolysis in neurons. J Neurotrauma 29 1982 PMID: 22435660

Leão et al (2012) OLM interneurons differentially modulate CA3 and entorhinal inputs to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nat Neurosci 15 1524 PMID: 23042082

You et al (2012) Aβ neurotoxicity depends on interactions between copper ions, prion protein, and N-MthD.-aspartate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 1737 PMID: 22307640

Mitra et al (2012) Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity. Nat Neurosci 15 250 PMID: 22179109

Saszik and DeVries (2012) A mammalian retinal bipolar cell uses both graded changes in membrane voltage and all-or-nothing Na+ spikes to encode light. J Neurosci 32 297 PMID: 22219291

Mah et al (2010) Selected SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family proteins regulate synapse formation. BMC Neurosci 30 5559 PMID: 20410109

Kim et al (2010) Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation triggers production and release of Alzheimer's amyloid(β)42 from isolated intact nerve terminals. J Neurophysiol 30 3870 PMID: 20237257

Kim et al (2010) Non-cardiomyocytes influence the electrophysiological maturation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes during differentiation. J Neurosci 19 783 PMID: 20001453

Yeh et al (2010) SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. J Neurosci 6 e1001207 PMID: 21124874

Farkas et al (2010) Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling reduces GABAergic synaptic transmission to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci 151 5818 PMID: 20926585

Léveillé et al (2010) Excitotoxic insults lead to peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation. Eur J Neurosci 2 110 PMID: 20357934

Gonzalez-Islas et al (2010) GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential. J Neurosci 30 13016 PMID: 20881119

Merriam et al (2010) Somatic ATP release from guinea pig sympathetic neurons does not require calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores. Cell 299 C836 PMID: 20668213

Messa et al (2010) Tyrosine phosphorylation of synapsin I by Src regulates synaptic-vesicle trafficking. Neuropharmacology 123 2256 PMID: 20530578

Gittis et al (2010) Mechanisms of sustained high firing rates in two classes of vestibular nucleus neurons: differential contributions of resurgent Na, Kv3, and BK currents. J Neurosci 104 1625 PMID: 20592126

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040

Kola et al The orexigenic effect of ghrelin is mediated through central activation of the endogenous cannabinoid system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 e1797 PMID: 18335063

Astorga et al (2015) An excitatory GABA loop operating in vivo. Front Cell Neurosci 9 275 PMID: 26236197

Salvitti et al (2015) No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida). Toxins (Basel) 7 255 PMID: 25635464

Jang et al (2015) Regulation of STEP61 and tyrosine-phosphorylation of NMDA and AMPA receptors during homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Mol Brain 8 55 PMID: 26391783

Noh et al (2015) ATRX tolerates activity-dependent histone H3 methyl/phos switching to maintain repetitive element silencing in neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 6820 PMID: 25538301

Hou et al (2015) MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Nat Commun 6 10045 PMID: 26620774

Lin et al (2015) Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice. Sci Rep 5 12095 PMID: 26160593

Tang et al (2015) Stimulation-evoked Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses of adult mice are modulated by glutamate and ATP. J Neurosci 35 3016 PMID: 25698739

Cao et al (2015) Involvement of JNK and caspase activation in hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity in neocortical neurons. Mar Drugs 13 903 PMID: 25675001

Speed et al (2015) Autism-Associated Insertion Mutation (InsG) of Shank3 Exon 21 Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Behavioral Deficits. J Neurosci 35 9648 PMID: 26134648

Xue et al (2015) Structural elements that underlie Doc2β function during asynchronous synaptic transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112 E4316 PMID: 26195798

Nam et al (2019) Activation of Astrocytic μ-Opioid Receptor Causes Conditioned Place Preference. Cell Rep 28 1154 PMID: 31365861

Ye et al (2019) KA metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA enhances aggression via periaqueductal gray glutamatergic transmission. Neuropharmacology 157 PMID: 31207251

Pierrot et al (2019) Sex-regulated gene dosage effect of PPARα on synaptic plasticity. Life Sci Alliance 2 PMID: 30894406

Hui et al (2019) GABARAPs dysfunction by autophagy deficiency in adolescent brain impairs GABAA receptor trafficking and social behavior. Sci Adv 5 eaau8237 PMID: 30989111

Rizzi and Tan (2019) Synergistic Nigral Output Pathways Shape Movement. Cell Rep 27 2184 PMID: 31091455

Rhee et al (2019) An Autaptic Culture System for Standardized Analyses of iPSC-Derived Human Neurons. Cell Rep 27 2212 PMID: 31091457

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Kaminski et al (2011) 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. Eur J Neurosci 60 1098 PMID: 20883706

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Shinoda et al (2011) Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. J Neurosci 108 373 PMID: 21173225

Abe et al (2011) The Etv1/Er81 transcription factor orchestrates activity-dependent gene regulation in the terminal maturation program of cerebellar granule cells. J Neurogastroenterol Motil 108 12497 PMID: 21746923

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Bülow et al (2019) Homeostatic Intrinsic Plasticity Is Functionally Altered in Fmr1 KO Cortical Neurons. Cell Rep 26 1378 PMID: 30726724

Basu et al (2017) Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus. Neuron 96 160 PMID: 28957665

Liu et al (2017) IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning. Neuron 95 106 PMID: 28683263

Zhang and Lu (2017) Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) controls surface GluA1 protein in synaptic homeostasis. J Biol Chem 292 15481 PMID: 28768764

Temkin et al (2017) The Retromer Supports AMPA Receptor Trafficking During LTP. Neuron 94 74 PMID: 28384478

Bas-Orth et al (2017) Synaptic Activity Drives a Genomic Program That Promotes a Neuronal Warburg Effect. J Biol Chem 292 5183 PMID: 28196867

Zhao et al (2017) A Central Catecholaminergic Circuit Controls Blood Glucose Levels during Stress. Neuron 95 138 PMID: 28625488

Leal et al (2017) The RNA-Binding Protein hnRNP K Mediates the Effect of BDNF on Dendritic mRNA Metabolism and Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Hippocampal Neurons. Eneuro 4 PMID: 29255796

Chang et al (2017) CaMKII Autophosphorylation Is Necessary for Optimal Integration of Ca2+ Signals during LTP Induction, but Not Maintenance. Neuron 94 800 PMID: 28521133

Grochowska et al (2017) Posttranslational modification impact on the mechanism by which amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction. EMBO Rep 18 962 PMID: 28420656

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Hashimotodani et al (2017) LTP at Hilar Mossy Cell-Dentate Granule Cell Synapses Modulates Dentate Gyrus Output by Increasing Excitation/Inhibition Balance. Neuron 95 928 PMID: 28817805

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Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753 PMID: 21228184

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908 PMID: 21642956

Chiu et al (2019) NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content. Cell Rep 28 332 PMID: 31291571

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Gao et al (2015) Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following PilC-induced status epilepticus in the rat. J Neurosci 9 384 PMID: 26500490

Zhong et al (2015) BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain DA neurons. J Neurosci 35 4469 PMID: 25762688

Cramer et al (2015) Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse. Mol Cell Biol 35 5664 PMID: 25855180

Wang et al (2015) Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses. PLoS One 35 1712 PMID: 25755278

Erlandson et al (2015) The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation. J Neurosci 10 e0132008 PMID: 26134668

Hooks et al (2015) Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 35 4418 PMID: 25762684

Ghosh et al (2015) NE Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors. Cell Rep 9 450 PMID: 26635530

Torper et al (2015) In Vivo Reprogramming of Striatal NG2 Glia into Functional Neurons that Integrate into Local Host Circuitry. J Neurosci 12 474 PMID: 26166567

Sobieski et al (2015) Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro. J Neurosci 35 11105 PMID: 26245971

Eyo et al (2015) Modulation of microglial process convergence toward neuronal dendrites by extracellular calcium. J Neurosci 35 2417 PMID: 25673836

Sivakumaran et al (2015) Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo. Nat Commun 35 8291 PMID: 26019342

Kirwan et al (2015) Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 142 3178 PMID: 26395144

Do you know of a great paper that uses Tetrodotoxin from Tocris? Please let us know.

Reviews for Tetrodotoxin

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Totally blocked action potential.
By Yuyang Sun on 05/30/2022
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse

Works great. Totally blocked the action potential in mouse brain slice.

review image

By Anonymous on 04/04/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: Sprague-Dawley rats primary neuronal

10 μM for 30min

PMID: 31291571 Reference
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The pharmacological inhibitors for electrophysiology assay.
By Anonymous on 02/28/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Other

The following concentrations we were used:1 μM Bay K, 10 μM nifedipine, 10 μM nimodipine, 300 nM omega -agatoxin, 1 μM omega -conotoxin, 5 μM mibefradil, 1 μM tetrodotoxin, 1 μM charybdotoxin, 100 nM iberiotoxin, 10 μM NS11021.

PMID: 28264196
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TTX blocks action potential propagation.
By Anonymous on 08/31/2019
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: Hippocampus

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was used to block action potential propagation in response to lasting current injection into living neuron. This illustrated a critical role of voltage-gated sodium channels in inter-neuronal crosstalk. 1 microM of TTX developed 100% effect (see Figure). Figure: action potential generation by isolated neuron under control and after TTX was added to perfusion solution.

Compound should be sonicated when dissolved.

review image

good drug for neuronal activity inhibition.
By Lihua Wang on 01/24/2018
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse

We use this to block cell activity of the brain slices, in order to keep the cells more healthy after they are dissociated. It works great and helps a lot for our purpose; but the only little problem is that it's very hard to dissolve in the water.