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Probenecid is an inhibitor of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP). Probenicid inhibits OAT3, organic acid transport in the kidney and other organs and exhibits inhibitory activity against pannexin 1 channels (IC50 ~ 150 μM). Probenecid potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in NHBE and Vero E6 cells (IC50 = 1.3 nM and 750 nM, respectively) and reduces lung virus titers in vivo. Probenicid also inhibits influenza A virus replication in vitro and in vivo.
Probenecid is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max, Tocriscreen Antiviral Library and Tocriscreen FDA-Approved Drugs. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 285.36. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.5 mL||17.52 mL||35.04 mL|
|5 mM||0.7 mL||3.5 mL||7.01 mL|
|10 mM||0.35 mL||1.75 mL||3.5 mL|
|50 mM||0.07 mL||0.35 mL||0.7 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Cunningham et al (1981) Clinical pharmacokinetics of probe. Clin.Pharmacokinet. 6 135 PMID: 7011657
Hammond et al (2007) Glutathione export during apoptosis requires functional multidrug resistance-associated proteins. J.Biol.Chem. 282 14337 PMID: 17374608
Silverman et al (2008) Probenecid, a gout remedy, inhibits pannexin 1 channels. Am.J.Physiol.Cell Physiol. 295 C761 PMID: 18596212
Ishikawa et al (2010) Function and expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cultured human Y79 retinoblastoma cells. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 33 504 PMID: 20190417
Perwitasai et al (2013) Targeting organic anion transporter 3 with probenecid as a novel anti-influenza a virus strategy. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 57 475 PMID: 23129053
Murray et al (2021) Probenecid inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in vivo and in vitro. Sci.Rep. 11 PMID: 34508172
If you know of a relevant reference for Probenecid, please let us know.
Keywords: Probenecid, Probenecid supplier, ATP-binding, cassette, ABC, multidrug, resistance-associated, proteins, MRP, inhibitors, inhibits, Multidrug, Transporters, Influenza, Viruses, COVID-19, Coronavirus, 4107, Tocris Bioscience
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Probenecid include:
Asgari et al (2013) C3a modulates IL-1β secretion in human monocytes by regulating ATP efflux and subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. J Biol Chem 122 3473 PMID: 23878142
Ostrovskaya et al (2014) Neuroprotective effect of novel cognitive enhancer noopept on AD-related cellular model involves the attenuation of apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. J Biomed Sci 21 74 PMID: 25096780
Do you know of a great paper that uses Probenecid from Tocris? Please let us know.
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Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
There are two currently recognized forms of programmed cell death: apoptosis and necroptosis. This poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate.