Picrotoxin

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Cat.No. 1128 - Picrotoxin | C30H34O13 | CAS No. 124-87-8
Description: GABAA antagonist
Datasheet
Citations (125)
Reviews (4)
Literature (7)

Biological Activity

GABAA receptor antagonist; potent CNS stimulant.

Technical Data

M. Wt 602.59
Formula C30H34O13
Storage Store at RT
CAS Number 124-87-8
PubChem ID 6473767
InChI Key VJKUPQSHOVKBCO-ZYMHLGHZSA-N
Smiles [H][C@@]12OC([C@@](C1(C(C)=C)[H])([C@@]3(C[C@H]4O[C@]45C(O[C@]2([C@]35C)[H])=O)O)[H])=O.[H][C@@]67OC([C@@](C6(C(C)(O)C)[H])([C@@]8(C[C@H]9O[C@]9%10C(O[C@]7([C@]8%10C)[H])=O)O)[H])=O

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
ethanol 30.13 50 with gentle warming
DMSO 60.26 100

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 602.59. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

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Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.66 mL 8.3 mL 16.6 mL
5 mM 0.33 mL 1.66 mL 3.32 mL
10 mM 0.17 mL 0.83 mL 1.66 mL
50 mM 0.03 mL 0.17 mL 0.33 mL

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Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Dillon et al (1995) Enhancement by GABA of the association rate of picrotoxin and tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the rat cloned α1β2γ2 GABAA receptor subtype. Br.J.Pharmacol. 115 539 PMID: 7582470

Ette et al (1999) Picrotoxin blockade of inverterbrate glutamate-gated chloride channels: subunit dependence and evidence for binding within the pore. J.Neurochem. 72 318 PMID: 9886084

Newland and Cull-Candy (1992) On the mechanism of action of picrotoxin on GABA receptor channels in dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat. J.Physiol. 447 191 PMID: 1317428

Merck Index 12 7570


If you know of a relevant reference for Picrotoxin, please let us know.

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Keywords: Picrotoxin, Picrotoxin supplier, GABAA, receptor, antagonists, Receptors, picrotin, 1128, Tocris Bioscience

125 Citations for Picrotoxin

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Picrotoxin include:

Franchini et al (2019) Linking NMDA Receptor Synaptic Retention to Synaptic Plasticity and Cognition. iScience 19 927 PMID: 31518901

Li et al (2019) TMEM16B regulates anxiety-related behavior and GABAergic neuronal signaling in the central lateral amygdala. Elife 8 PMID: 31482844

Beas et al (2018) The locus coeruleus drives disinhibition in the midline thalamus via a dopaminergic mechanism. Nat Neurosci 21 963 PMID: 29915192

Tozzi (2018) DA D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson’s disease. Cell Death Dis 9 204 PMID: 29434188

Dobson et al (2015) Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 10 e0125974 PMID: 25933382

Arama et al (2015) GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons. Physiol Rep 9 290 PMID: 26300728

Quintana et al (2015) Acid-sensing ion channel 1a drives AMPA receptor plasticity following ischaemia and acidosis in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 593 4373 PMID: 26174503

Ghosh et al (2015) NE Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors. Neural Plast 9 450 PMID: 26635530

Yoon et al (2012) Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway. Mol Brain 5 40 PMID: 23111145

Ermolyuk et al (2012) Independent regulation of basal neurotransmitter release efficacy by variable Ca2+ influx and bouton size at small central synapses. PLoS Biol 10 e1001396 PMID: 23049481

Janssen et al (2012) Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons. J Neurosci 32 13889 PMID: 23035098

Caiati et al (2012) Developmental regulation of CB1-mediated spike-time dependent depression at immature mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Sci Rep 2 285 PMID: 22368777

Hemond et al (2012) Simulated GABA synaptic input and L-type calcium channels form functional microdomains in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. J Neurosci 32 8756 PMID: 22745478

Wills et al (2012) GluN2B subunit deletion reveals key role in acute and chronic ethanol sensitivity of glutamate synapses in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 E278 PMID: 22219357

Ring et al (2012) GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. PLoS One 7 e36874 PMID: 22590629

Lugo et al (2012) Kv4.2 knockout mice have hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits. Learn Mem 19 182 PMID: 22505720

Olsen and Sheng (2012) NMDA receptors and BAX are essential for Aβ impairment of LTP. Sci Rep 2 225 PMID: 22355739

Bhat et al (2010) Inhibitory role for GABA in autoimmune inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 2580 PMID: 20133656

Goffin et al (2010) DA-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 30 2935 PMID: 20181591

Lobb et al (2010) A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain DArgic neurons. J Neurophysiol 104 403 PMID: 20445035

Nishino et al (2010) A glycine receptor is involved in the organization of swimming movements in an invertebrate chordate. BMC Neurosci 11 6 PMID: 20085645

Kaneko et al (2010) Constitutively active H-ras accelerates multiple forms of plasticity in developing visual cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 19026 PMID: 20937865

Buchanan et al (2010) Facilitation of long-term potentiation by muscarinic M(1) receptors is mediated by inhibition of SK channels. Neuron 68 948 PMID: 21145007

Jackson et al (2010) Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PLoS One 5 e11962 PMID: 20694145

Ying and Goldstein (2005) PropF. suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels. Front Cell Neurosci 1 2 PMID: 15813991

Smith and Otis (2005) Pattern-dependent, simultaneous plasticity differentially transforms the input-output relationship of a feedforward circuit. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102 14901 PMID: 16199519

Nagel et al (2015) Synaptic and circuit mechanisms promoting broadband transmission of olfactory stimulus dynamics. Nat Neurosci 18 56 PMID: 25485755

Caiati et al (2013) PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus. J Neurosci 33 2973 PMID: 23407955

Lau and Murthy (2012) Activity-dependent regulation of inhibition via GAD67. J Physiol 32 8521 PMID: 22723692

McKay et al (2012) Direct pharmacological monitoring of the developmental switch in NMDA receptor subunit composition using TCN 213, a GluN2A-selective, glycine-dependent antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 166 924 PMID: 22022974

Hulme et al (2012) Calcium-dependent but action potential-independent BCM-like metaplasticity in the hippocampus. J Neurosci 32 6785 PMID: 22593048

Lerner et al (2010) Endocannabinoid signaling mediates psychomotor activation by adenosine A2A antagonists. J Neurosci 30 2160 PMID: 20147543

Shields et al (2009) alpha2A-adrenergic receptors heterosynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Neuroscience 163 339 PMID: 19527774

Song et al (2019) Altered Behaviors and Impaired Synaptic Function in a Novel Rat Model With a Complete Shank3 Deletion. Front Cell Neurosci 13 111 PMID: 30971895

Yu et al (2019) Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice. Mol Brain 12 29 PMID: 30935412

Bhandage et al (2019) Toxoplasma-Induced Hypermigration of Primary Cortical Microglia Implicates GABAergic Signaling. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 9 73 PMID: 30949457

Yang and Sun (2015) Hierarchical organization of long-range circuits in the olfactory cortices. Cereb Cortex 3 PMID: 26416972

Dobson and Bellamy (2015) Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum. Sci Rep 2015 602356 PMID: 26171253

Klug et al (2012) Genetic inhibition of CaMKII in dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons reduces functional excitatory synapses and enhances intrinsic excitability. PLoS One 7 e45323 PMID: 23028932

Li et al (2011) Synergistic activation of DA D1 and TrkB receptors mediate gain control of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala. PLoS One 6 e26065 PMID: 22022509

Sun (2009) Experience-dependent intrinsic plasticity in interneurons of barrel cortex layer IV. J Neurosci 102 2955 PMID: 19741102

Shiratsuchi et al (2009) PropF. inhibits pressure-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis via the GABAA receptor and dysregulation of p130cas phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296 C1400 PMID: 19357231

Spoljaric et al (2019) KCC2-Mediated Cl- Extrusion Modulates Spontaneous Hippocampal Network Events in Perinatal Rats and Mice. Cell Rep 26 1073 PMID: 30699338

Li et al (2017) A Critical Role of Presynaptic Cadherin/Catenin/p140Cap Complexes in Stabilizing Spines and Functional Synapses in the Neocortex. Neuron 94 1155 PMID: 28641114

Liu et al (2017) IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning. Neuron 95 106 PMID: 28683263

Ferrante et al (2017) Post-Inhibitory Rebound Spikes in Rat Medial Entorhinal Layer II/III Principal Cells: In Vivo, In Vitro, and Computational Modeling Characterization. Cereb Cortex 27 2111 PMID: 26965902

Sando et al (2017) Assembly of Excitatory Synapses in the Absence of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission. Neuron 94 312 PMID: 28426966

Gioia et al (2017) Ethanol Mediated Inhibition of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling at Amygdala Glutamate Synapses Is Dependent upon Munc13-2. Front Neurosci 11 424 PMID: 28785200

Chanda et al (2014) Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1. PLoS One 3 282 PMID: 25254342

Beckley et al (2013) Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic DA neurons. J Neurosci 33 804 PMID: 23303956

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497 PMID: 23840491

Rehak et al (2013) Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes. PLoS One 8 e61844 PMID: 23626738

Hou and Yu (2013) Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4. J Biol Chem 288 2501 PMID: 23233668

Lecrux et al (2011) Pyramidal neurons are "neurogenic hubs" in the neurovascular coupling response to whisker stimulation. J Neurosci 31 9836 PMID: 21734275

Thompson and Perkel (2011) Endocannabinoids mediate synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses on spiny neurons within a basal ganglia nucleus necessary for song learning. J Neurophysiol 105 1159 PMID: 21177997

Nobis et al (2011) β-Adrenergic receptors enhance excitatory transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis through a corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-dependent and cocaine-regulated mechanism. Biol Psychiatry 69 1083 PMID: 21334600

Yeo et al (2009) Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride. Nat Neurosci 29 14652 PMID: 19923298

Dixon et al (2009) PICK1-mediated glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) trafficking contributes to cell death in oxygen/glucose-deprived hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 284 14230 PMID: 19321442

Long et al (2009) Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release. J Neurosci 284 8726 PMID: 19141616

Sinnayah et al Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system. J Neurosci 3 e2202 PMID: 18493584

Tozzi et al (2015) Endogenous 17β-OE is required for activity-dependent long-term potentiation in the striatum: interaction with the DArgic system. Front Cell Neurosci 9 192 PMID: 26074768

Wang et al (2011) A critical role for GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in cortical development and function. Neuron 72 789 PMID: 22153375

Higley et al (2011) Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum. PLoS One 6 e19155 PMID: 21544206

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in DA neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103 PMID: 22114279

Straub et al (2011) Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1. Nat Neurosci 14 866 PMID: 21623363

Storey et al (2011) Molecular determinants controlling NMDA receptor synaptic incorporation. J Neurosci 31 6311 PMID: 21525271

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908 PMID: 21642956

George et al (2011) A diversity of synaptic filters are created by temporal summation of excitation and inhibition. J Neurosci 31 14721 PMID: 21994388

Kash et al (2008) DA enhances fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the extended amygdala by a CRF-R1-dependent process. J Neurosci 28 13856 PMID: 19091975

Manning et al (2008) NMDA receptor blockade with Mem. attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia. J Biol Chem 28 6670 PMID: 18579741

Soriano et al (2008) Specific targeting of pro-death NMDA receptor signals with differing reliance on the NR2B PDZ ligand. J Neurosci 28 10696 PMID: 18923045

Frischknecht et al (2008) Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci 28 1568 PMID: 18272678

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040 PMID: 18685029

Andäng et al (2008) Histone H2AX-dependent GABA(A) receptor regulation of stem cell proliferation. Nature 451 460 PMID: 18185516

Jüngling et al (2008) Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Neuron 59 298 PMID: 18667157

Root et al (2008) A presynaptic gain control mechanism fine-tunes olfactory behavior. Neuron 59 311 PMID: 18667158

Dennis et al (2016) Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus. J Neurosci 26 414 PMID: 26472558

Pan et al (2016) Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. Neuron 6 28137 PMID: 27319800

Eales et al (2014) The MK2/3 cascade regulates AMPAR trafficking and cognitive flexibility. Nat Commun 5 4701 PMID: 25134715

Tani et al (2014) A local glutamate-glutamine cycle sustains synaptic excitatory transmitter release. Neuron 81 888 PMID: 24559677

Easton et al (2014) Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 34 3854 PMID: 24623764

An et al (2014) Neuritin can normalize neural deficits of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Death Dis 5 e1523 PMID: 25393479

Wang et al (2014) SynGAP regulates protein synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity in developing cortical networks. PLoS One 8 e83941 PMID: 24391850

Simon et al (2014) Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations. Eur J Neurosci 39 46 PMID: 24118191

Xia et al (2014) Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons. PLoS One 9 e100968 PMID: 24971996

Mameza et al (2013) SHANK3 gene mutations associated with autism facilitate ligand binding to the Shank3 ankyrin repeat region. J Neurosci 288 26697 PMID: 23897824

Wang et al (2013) Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY379268 regulates AMPA receptor trafficking in prefrontal cortical neurons. PLoS One 8 e61787 PMID: 23593498

Chanda et al (2013) Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation. Cell Commun Signal 110 16622 PMID: 24046374

Brady et al (2013) Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus. Cell Metab 33 1062 PMID: 23325244

Brill and Huguenard (2008) Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit. PLoS One 28 13918 PMID: 19091980

Safiulina et al (2008) Low expression of Kv7/M channels facilitates intrinsic and network bursting in the developing rat hippocampus. J Physiol 586 5437 PMID: 18801845

Chiu and Castillo (2008) Input-specific plasticity at excitatory synapses mediated by endocannabinoids in the dentate gyrus. Neuropharmacology 54 68 PMID: 17706254

McElligott (2008) Alpha1-adrenergic receptor-induced heterosynaptic long-term depression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is disrupted in mouse models of affective disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 33 2313 PMID: 18046308

Purkey et al (2018) AKAP150 Palmitoylation Regulates Synaptic Incorporation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors to Control LTP. Cell Rep 25 974 PMID: 30355502

Rhijn et al (2018) Foxp2 loss of function increases striatal direct pathway inhibition via increased GABA release. Brain Struct Funct 223 4211 PMID: 30187194

Wall et al (2018) The Temporal Dynamics of Arc Expression Regulate Cognitive Flexibility. Neuron 98 1124 PMID: 29861284

McKay et al (2018) The Developmental Shift of NMDA Receptor Composition Proceeds Independently of GluN2 Subunit-Specific GluN2 C-Terminal Sequences. Cell Rep 25 841 PMID: 30355491

Ho et al (2016) Rapid Ngn2-induction of excitatory neurons from hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells. Methods 101 113 PMID: 26626326

Bariselli et al (2016) SHANK3 controls maturation of social reward circuits in the VTA. Nat Neurosci 19 926 PMID: 27273769

Li et al (2016) A Cortical Circuit for Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin-Dependent Anxiety Behaviors. Cell 167 60 PMID: 27641503

Zhang et al (2016) Loss of MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons causes part of RTT-like phenotypes via α7 receptor in hippocampus. Cell Res 26 728 PMID: 27103432

Hnasko et al (2012) Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci 32 15076 PMID: 23100428

Paz et al (2011) A new mode of corticothalamic transmission revealed in the Gria4(-/-) model of absence epilepsy. J Biol Chem 14 1167 PMID: 21857658

Mark et al (2011) Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations. J Neurosci 31 4311 PMID: 21411672

Lam et al (2011) Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite. Stem Cell Reports 13 584 PMID: 21531340

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. Mol Pain 31 10189 PMID: 21752995

Chen et al (2010) Neurexin-neuroligin cell adhesion complexes contribute to synaptotropic dendritogenesis via growth stabilization mechanisms in vivo. J Neurophysiol 67 967 PMID: 20869594

Brager and Johnston (2007) Plasticity of intrinsic excitability during long-term depression is mediated through mGluR-dependent changes in I(h) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 27 13926 PMID: 18094230

Marsden et al (2007) NMDA receptor activation potentiates inhibitory transmission through GABA receptor-associated protein-dependent exocytosis of GABA(A) receptors. J Neurosci 27 14326 PMID: 18160640

Shang et al (2007) Excitatory local circuits and their implications for olfactory processing in the fly antennal lobe. Cell 128 601 PMID: 17289577

Incontro (2018) The CaMKII/NMDA receptor complex controls hippocampal synaptic transmission by kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms. Nat Commun 9 2069 PMID: 29802289

O'Neill and Sylantyev (2018) Selective modulation of tonically active GABAA receptor functional subgroups by G-proteins and protein kinase C. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 243 1046 PMID: 30205722

Xu et al (2018) Genetic identification of leptin neural circuits in energy and glucose homeostases. Nature 556 505 PMID: 29670283

Fan et al (2018) All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of ketamine-induced disinhibition. Nat Methods 15 823 PMID: 30275587

Chang and Higley (2018) Potassium channels contribute to activity-dependent regulation of dendritic inhibition. Physiol Rep 6 e13747 PMID: 29939492

Cai and Ford (2018) DA Cells Differentially Regulate Striatal Cholinergic Transmission across Regions through Corelease of DA and Glutamate. Cell Rep 25 3148 PMID: 30540946

Sancho and Bloodgood (2018) Functional Distinctions between Spine and Dendritic Synapses Made onto Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons in Mouse Cortex. Cell Rep 24 2075 PMID: 30134169

Beckley et al (2016) The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens DA D1 Receptor Neurons. J Neurosci 36 701 PMID: 26791202

Chen et al (2016) Direct modulation of GFAP-expressing glia in the arcuate nucleus bi-directionally regulates feeding. Elife 5 PMID: 27751234

Cheadle and Biederer (2014) Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic complexity by semaphorin 3A through Farp1. J Biol Chem 34 7999 PMID: 24899721

Pandya and Pillai (2014) TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 12 47 PMID: 25052836

Vashchinkina et al (2014) Neurosteroid Agonist at GABAA receptor induces persistent neuroplasticity in VTA DA neurons. Neuropsychopharmacology 39 727 PMID: 24077066

Williams et al (2014) Excitatory drive onto DArgic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by NE in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Neuropharmacology 86 116 PMID: 25018040

Inan et al (2006) Barrel map development relies on protein kinase A regulatory subunit II beta-mediated cAMP signaling. J Neurosci 26 4338 PMID: 16624954

Kopp et al (2006) Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. J Neurosci 26 12456 PMID: 17135407


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Works as GABA-A receptor antagonist..
By Anonymous on 06/01/2020
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Mouse

Picrotoxin stock was prepared in DMSO and diluted with ACSF to 25 micromolar concentration. Bath application of Picrotoxin blocked evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in an ex-vivo slice preparation.


Picrotoxin blocks single-channel openings of GABA-A receptor.
By Anonymous on 07/21/2019
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: Hippocampus

20 microM Picrotoxin concentration was used to block GABA-A receptor openings in nucleated cell membrane patches. Full block was achieved in ~30 seconds after application. Picture: GABA-A receptor openings under control conditions (top three traces) and after application of Picrotoxin (bottom trace).

PMID: 30205722
review image

silence GABA activity.
By Karthik krishnamurthy on 10/26/2018
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: cortical neurons

Used to block GABA activity in 16 day old cortical neurons. Effective at 10 micromolar concentration. Incubated for 30 minutes before measuring bursts.

review image

GABA blocker.
By Anonymous on 10/02/2018
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Rat

Used for electrophysiology to block GABA currents. Works as expected


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