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Potent GABAA receptor agonist and partial GABAA-ρ receptor agonist. Inhibits memory retention and attenuates airway constriction in vivo.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 114.1. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||8.76 mL||43.82 mL||87.64 mL|
|5 mM||1.75 mL||8.76 mL||17.53 mL|
|10 mM||0.88 mL||4.38 mL||8.76 mL|
|50 mM||0.18 mL||0.88 mL||1.75 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Akhondzadeh and Stone (1995) Induction of a novel form of hippocampal long-term depression by muscimol: involvement of GABAA but not glutamate receptors. Br.J.Pharmacol. 115 527 PMID: 7582468
Gleason et al (2009) The GABAA agonist muscimol attenuates induced airway constriction in guinea pigs in vivo. J.Appl.Physiol. 106 1257 PMID: 19213928
Jafari-Sabet and Jannat-Dastjerdi (2009) Muscimol state-dependent memory: involvement of dorsal hippocampal μ-opioid receptors. Behav.Brain Res. 202 5 PMID: 19447274
Johnston et al (1968) Central actions of ibotenic acid and muscimol. Biochem.Pharmacol. 17 2488 PMID: 5752907
Johnstone (1996) GABAC receptors: relatively simple transmitter-gated ion channels? TiPS 17 319 PMID: 8885697
If you know of a relevant reference for Muscimol, please let us know.
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Keywords: Muscimol, Muscimol supplier, Potent, GABAA, agonists, Partial, GABAC, Receptors, GABAA-rho, 0289, Tocris Bioscience
44 Citations for Muscimol
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Muscimol include:
Xia et al (2014) Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons. PLoS One 9 e100968 PMID: 24971996
Zagha et al (2013) Motor cortex feedback influences sensory processing by modulating network state. Neuron 79 567 PMID: 23850595
Pouille et al (2013) The contribution of synaptic location to inhibitory gain control in pyramidal cells. Physiol Rep 1 e00067 PMID: 24303159
Manookin et al (2008) Disinhibition combines with excitation to extend the operating range of the OFF visual pathway in daylight. J Neurosci 28 4136 PMID: 18417693
Rubio et al (2015) Context-induced reinstatement of methA. seeking is associated with unique molecular alterations in Fos-expressing dorsolateral striatum neurons. J Neurosci 35 5625 PMID: 25855177
Lee et al (2015) Modulation of Spinal GABAergic Inhibition and Mechanical Hypersensitivity following Chronic Compression of Dorsal Root Ganglion in the Rat. Neural Plast 2015 924728 PMID: 26451259
Maclaren et al (2013) Updating of action-outcome associations is prevented by inactivation of the posterior pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. PLoS Comput Biol 102 28 PMID: 23567109
Wagner et al (2013) The dorsomedial hypothalamus mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia and is the source of the pronociceptive peptide cholecystokinin in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Mol Cell Biol 238 29 PMID: 23415792
Miyazato et al (2008) GABA receptor activation in the lumbosacral spinal cord decreases detrusor overactivity in spinal cord injured rats. J Urol 179 1178 PMID: 18206170
Tian and Brainard (2017) Discrete Circuits Support Generalized versus Context-Specific Vocal Learning in the Songbird. Neuron 96 1168 PMID: 29154128
Chen et al (2016) Honokiol suppresses TNF-α-induced neutrophil adhesion on cerebral endothelial cells by disrupting polyubiquitination and degradation of IκBα. Nature 6 26554 PMID: 27212040
Lethbridge et al (2012) Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat. Front Cell Neurosci 7 e35024 PMID: 22496886
Doyon et al (2011) Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 7 e1002149 PMID: 21931544
Wei et al (2011) Development of asymmetric inhibition underlying direction selectivity in the retina. J Biol Chem 469 402 PMID: 21131947
Porcher et al (2011) Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons. Neuroscience 286 21667 PMID: 21474450
Santhakumar et al (2010) Developmental regulation and neuroprotective effects of striatal tonic GABAA currents. Development 167 644 PMID: 20206233
Milenković et al (2007) Development of chloride-mediated inhibition in neurons of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). J Neurophysiol 98 1634 PMID: 17596413
Pandya and Pillai (2014) TrkB interacts with ErbB4 and regulates NRG1-induced NR2B phosphorylation in cortical neurons before synaptogenesis. Neuroscience 12 47 PMID: 25052836
Shah et al (2014) Pachymic Acid Enhances Drug-Induced Sleeping Behaviors via GABAA-ergic Systems in Mice. Biomol Ther (Seoul) 22 314 PMID: 25143810
Shulga et al (2012) The loop diuretic compound blocks posttraumatic p75NTR upregulation and rescues injured neurons. J Neurosci 32 1757 PMID: 22302815
Ring et al (2012) GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium. PLoS One 7 e36874 PMID: 22590629
Namikawa et al (2018) Salicylate-Induced Suppression of Electrically Driven Activity in Brain Slices from the Auditory Cortex of Aging Mice. Front Aging Neurosci 9 395 PMID: 29311894
Xiao et al (2018) Septal and Hippocampal Neurons Contribute to Auditory Relay and Fear Conditioning. Front Cell Neurosci 12 102 PMID: 29713265
Nasehi et al (2016) Additive effect of harmane and muscimol for memory consolidation impairment in inhibitory avoidance task Neuroscience 339 287 PMID: 27725215
Yang et al (2013) PF inhibits superoxide production, elastase release, and chemotaxis in formyl peptide-activated human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1. J Immunol 190 6511 PMID: 23670191
Brodnik et al (2018) Local GABAA receptor mediated suppression of DA release within the nucleus accumbens. ACS Chem Neurosci 17 1978 PMID: 30253088
Wang et al (2015) Protein kinase C-dependent growth-associated protein 43 phosphorylation regulates gephyrin aggregation at developing GABAergic synapses. J Neurosci 35 1712 PMID: 25755278
Sivakumaran et al (2015) Selective inhibition of KCC2 leads to hyperexcitability and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal slices and in vivo. EXCLI J 35 8291 PMID: 26019342
Kangarlu-Haghighi et al (2015) The effect of BLA GABA(A) receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA. Sci Rep 14 613 PMID: 26648818
Parent et al (2015) The medial prefrontal cortex is crucial for the maintenance of persistent licking and the expression of incentive contrast. Neurobiol Dis 9 23 PMID: 25870544
Kirwan et al (2015) Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. PLoS One 142 3178 PMID: 26395144
Arama et al (2015) GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons. PLoS One 9 290 PMID: 26300728
Hengen et al (2015) Daily isoflu. exposure increases barbiturate insensitivity in medullary respiratory and cortical neurons via expression of η-subunit containing GABA ARs. PLoS One 10 e0119351 PMID: 25748028
Taylor-Burds et al (2015) Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation. J Biol Chem 10 e0131076 PMID: 26110920
Piqueras and Martínez (2004) Peripheral GABAB agonists stimulate gastric acid secretion in mice. Br J Pharmacol 142 1038 PMID: 15210585
David-Pereira (2017) The medullary dorsal reticular nucleus as a relay for descending pronociception induced by the mGluR5 in the rat infralimbic cortex. Neuroscience 349 341 PMID: 28300633
Grosso et al (2015) The higher order auditory cortex is involved in the assignment of affective value to sensory stimuli. Nat Commun 6 8886 PMID: 26619940
Ilie et al (2012) Adenosine release during seizures attenuates GABAA receptor-mediated depolarization. J Neurosci 32 5321 PMID: 22496577
Asiedu et al (2012) Modulation of spinal GABAergic analgesia by inhibition of chloride extrusion capacity in mice. J Pain 13 546 PMID: 22537560
Richardson and Shelton (2015) NMDA receptor channel blocker-like discriminative stimulus effects of NO gas. Front Integr Neurosci 352 156 PMID: 25368340
Tashiro et al (2014) GABAergic influence on temporomandibular joint-responsive spinomedullary neurons depends on estrogen status. Neurobiol Learn Mem 259 53 PMID: 24316475
Kalmbach et al (2009) Interactions between prefrontal cortex and cerebellum revealed by trace eyelid conditioning. Learn Mem 16 86 PMID: 19144967
Yoon et al (2009) Intrathecal injection of the neurosteroid, DHEAS, produces mechanical allodynia in mice: involvement of spinal sigma-1 and GABA receptors. Br J Pharmacol 157 666 PMID: 19422393
Long et al (2009) Nerve Terminal GABAA Receptors Activate Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Signaling to Inhibit Voltage-gated Ca2+ Influx and Glutamate Release. Neuroscience 284 8726 PMID: 19141616
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
GABA Receptors Scientific Review
Written by Ian Martin, Norman Bowery and Susan Dunn, this review provides a history of the GABA receptor, as well as discussing the structure and function of the various subtypes and the clinical potential of receptor modulators; compounds available from Tocris are listed.
The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.