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Biological Activity for M40
M40 is a potent, non-selective galanin receptor antagonist (Ki values are 1.82 and 5.1 nM at GAL1 and GAL2 respectively) that inhibits galanin (1-29) (Cat. No. 2696) binding in rat brain in vitro (IC50 = 3 - 15 nM). Attenuates the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine (Cat. No. 0927) and blocks galanin-induced food intake in vivo. Also exhibits weak partial agonist activity at peripheral GAL2 receptors at doses > 100 nM.
Technical Data for M40
(Modifications: Ala-20 = C-terminal amide)
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for M40
|Solubility||Soluble to 1 mg/ml in water|
References for M40
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Bartfai et al (1993) Galanin-receptor ligand M40 peptide distinguishes between putative galanin-receptor subtypes. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 90 11287
Yuan et al (2002) Gastric effects of galanin and its interaction with leptin on brainstem neuronal activity. J.Pharm.Exp.Ther. 301 488
Lu et al (2005) A role for galanin in antidepressant actions with a focus on the dorsal raphe nucleus. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 102 874
If you know of a relevant reference for M40, please let us know.
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Keywords: M40, M40 supplier, Potent, non-selective, galanin, antagonists, GAL, GalR, Receptors, Galanin, (1-13)-Pro-Pro-(Ala-Leu-)2Ala, amide, 3425, Tocris Bioscience
2 Citations for M40
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for M40 include:
Li (2017) Involvement of galanin and galanin receptor 1 in nociceptive modulation in the central nucleus of amygdala in normal and neuropathic rats. Sci Rep 7 15317 PMID: 29127424
Herring et al (2012) The cardiac sympathetic co-transmitter galanin reduces acetylcholine release and vagal bradycardia: implications for neural control of cardiac excitability. J Mol Cell Cardiol 52 667 PMID: 22172449
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Reviews for M40
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Peptides Involved in Appetite Modulation Scientific Review
Written by Sonia Tucci, Lynsay Kobelis and Tim Kirkham, this review provides a synopsis of the increasing number of peptides that have been implicated in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis; putative roles of the major peptides are outlined and compounds available from Tocris are listed.