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Standard selective β-adrenoceptor agonist; vasorelaxant and bronchodilator. Activation of β2 receptors activates downstream PKA and ERK, and may stimulate NO-mediated endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation. Active in vivo. Also available as part of the β-Adrenoceptor Agonist Tocriset™ and Mixed Adrenergic Tocriset™.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 247.72. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||4.04 mL||20.18 mL||40.37 mL|
|5 mM||0.81 mL||4.04 mL||8.07 mL|
|10 mM||0.4 mL||2.02 mL||4.04 mL|
|50 mM||0.08 mL||0.4 mL||0.81 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Akimoto et al (2002) Nitric oxide (NO) primarily accounts for endothelium-dependent component of β-adrenoceptor-activated smooth muscle relaxation of mouse aorta in response to isoprenaline. J.Smooth Muscle Res. 38 87 PMID: 12596888
Lotti et al (1982) Characterization of the adrenoreceptor activities of isoprenaline in the field stimulated rat vas deferens: selective supersensitivity to beta 2-mediated responses following rese. treatment. J.Auton.Pharmacol. 2 169 PMID: 6292228
Schmitt and Stork (2000) β2-adrenergic receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) via the small G protein Rap1 and the serine/threonine kinase B-Raf. J.Biol.Chem. 275 25342 PMID: 10840035
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27 Citations for Isoproterenol hydrochloride
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Isoproterenol hydrochloride include:
Hansen and Manahan-Vaughan (2015) Locus Coeruleus Stimulation Facilitates Long-Term Depression in the Dentate Gyrus That Requires Activation of β-Adrenergic Receptors. Eur J Neurosci 25 1889 PMID: 24464942
Chigaev et al (2011) Real-time analysis of the inside-out regulation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 revealed similarities to and differences from very late antigen-4. J Biol Chem 286 20375 PMID: 21515675
Nobis et al (2011) β-Adrenergic receptors enhance excitatory transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis through a corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-dependent and cocaine-regulated mechanism. Biol Psychiatry 69 1083 PMID: 21334600
Turkieh et al (2019) Increased clusterin levels after myocardial infarction is due to a defect in protein degradation systems activity. Cell Death Dis 10 608 PMID: 31406108
Cardin and Schmidt (2004) Noradrenergic inputs mediate state dependence of auditory responses in the avian song system. Sci Rep 24 7745 PMID: 15342742
Gray et al (2014) Inhibitory interactions between phosphorylation sites in the C terminus of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289 14600 PMID: 24706758
Yang et al (2014) PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to β-adrenergic signaling. Diabetes 66 83 PMID: 24225179
Zemkova et al (2011) NE causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+. Endocrinology 152 3842 PMID: 21828176
Rankovic et al (2011) Modulation of calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca2+ channels via β-adrenergic signaling in thalamocortical relay neurons. PLoS One 6 e27474 PMID: 22164209
Maehashi et al (2008) Bitter peptides activate hTAS2Rs, the human bitter receptors. PLoS One 365 851 PMID: 18037373
Hernández-Cascales (2017) Resveratrol enhances the inotropic effect but inhibits the proarrhythmic effect of sympathomimetic agents in rat myocardium. PeerJ 5 e3113 PMID: 28382232
McKeithan et al (2017) An Automated Platform for Assessment of Congenital and Drug-Induced Arrhythmia with hiPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Front Physiol 8 766 PMID: 29075196
Komolov et al (2017) Structural and Functional Analysis of a β2-Adrenergic Receptor Complex with GRK5. Cell 169 407 PMID: 28431242
Stoddart et al (2015) Application of BRET to monitor ligand binding to GPCRs. Nat Methods 12 661 PMID: 26030448
Rudnicki et al (2018) Female Mice Have Higher Angiogenesis in Perigonadal Adipose Tissue Than Males in Response to High-Fat Diet. Front Physiol 9 1452 PMID: 30405427
Santulli et al (2012) Age-related impairment in Ins release: the essential role of β(2)-adrenergic receptor. J Cell Biol 61 692 PMID: 22315324
Duncan et al (2010) The effects of aging and chronic fluox. treatment on circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus expression of neuropeptide genes and 5-HT1B receptors. J Biol Chem 31 1646 PMID: 20525077
Liu et al (2016) DMP-1-mediated Ghr gene recombination compromises skeletal development and impairs skeletal response to intermittent PTH. FASEB J 30 635 PMID: 26481310
Sun et al (2015) Adrenergic DNA damage of embryonic pluripotent cells via β2 receptor signalling. Nat Commun 5 15950 PMID: 26516061
Siuda et al (2015) Optodynamic simulation of β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6 8480 PMID: 26412387
Lang et al (2015) Arrhythmogenic remodeling of β2 versus β1 adrenergic signaling in the human failing heart. Cereb Cortex 8 409 PMID: 25673629
Merino et al (2015) Glucagon Increases Beating Rate but Not Contractility in Rat Right Atrium. Comparison with isoprote. J Mol Cell Cardiol 10 e0132884 PMID: 26222156
Williams et al (2014) Excitatory drive onto DArgic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by NE in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Neuropharmacology 86 116 PMID: 25018040
Zhang et al (2013) NE drives persistent activity in prefrontal cortex via synergistic α1 and α2 adrenoceptors. PLoS One 8 e66122 PMID: 23785477
Zaytseva et al (2013) Resonant waveguide grating biosensor-enabled label-free and fluorescence detection of cell adhesion. Sens Actuators B Chem 188 PMID: 24319319
Silberman and Winder (2013) Corticotropin releasing factor and catecholamines enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala. Neuropharmacology 70 316 PMID: 23470280
Clark et al (2010) Reversibly sealed multilayer microfluidic device for integrated cell perfusion and on-line chemical analysis of cultured adipocyte secretions. Anal Bioanal Chem 397 2939 PMID: 20549489
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Reviews for Isoproterenol hydrochloride
Average Rating: 4.7 (Based on 3 Reviews.)
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HEK293 cells transfected with cAMP FRET sensor, Epac-S(H187) were perfused in normal tyrode solution and excited alternately at 430 nm and fluorescence was captured at 470 and 535 nm. Isoprenaline (10 µM) was added at 1 min to elevate intracellular cAMP, which is detected as an increase in 470/535 fluorescence ratio.
Live assay treatment
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.