Standard selective β-adrenoceptor agonist; vasorelaxant and bronchodilator. Activation of β2 receptors activates downstream PKA and ERK, and may stimulate NO-mediated endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation. Active in vivo. Also available as part of the β-Adrenoceptor Agonist Tocriset™ and Mixed Adrenergic Tocriset™.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 247.72. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||4.04 mL||20.18 mL||40.37 mL|
|5 mM||0.81 mL||4.04 mL||8.07 mL|
|10 mM||0.4 mL||2.02 mL||4.04 mL|
|50 mM||0.08 mL||0.4 mL||0.81 mL|
References are publications that support the products' biological activity.
Akimoto et al (2002) Nitric oxide (NO) primarily accounts for endothelium-dependent component of β-adrenoceptor-activated smooth muscle relaxation of mouse aorta in response to isoprenaline. J.Smooth Muscle Res. 38 87 PMID: 12596888
Lotti et al (1982) Characterization of the adrenoreceptor activities of isoprenaline in the field stimulated rat vas deferens: selective supersensitivity to beta 2-mediated responses following reserpine treatment. J.Auton.Pharmacol. 2 169 PMID: 6292228
Schmitt and Stork (2000) β2-adrenergic receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) via the small G protein Rap1 and the serine/threonine kinase B-Raf. J.Biol.Chem. 275 25342 PMID: 10840035
If you know of a relevant reference for Isoproterenol hydrochloride, please let us know.
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21 Citations for Isoproterenol hydrochloride
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Isoproterenol hydrochloride include:
Cardin and Schmidt (2004) Noradrenergic inputs mediate state dependence of auditory responses in the avian song system. Sci Rep 24 7745 PMID: 15342742
Santulli et al (2012) Age-related impairment in insulin release: the essential role of β(2)-adrenergic receptor. J Cell Biol 61 692 PMID: 22315324
Duncan et al (2010) The effects of aging and chronic fluoxetine treatment on circadian rhythms and suprachiasmatic nucleus expression of neuropeptide genes and 5-HT1B receptors. J Biol Chem 31 1646 PMID: 20525077
Sun et al (2015) Adrenergic DNA damage of embryonic pluripotent cells via β2 receptor signalling. Nat Commun 5 15950 PMID: 26516061
Siuda et al (2015) Optodynamic simulation of β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6 8480 PMID: 26412387
Lang et al (2015) Arrhythmogenic remodeling of β2 versus β1 adrenergic signaling in the human failing heart. Cereb Cortex 8 409 PMID: 25673629
Merino et al (2015) Glucagon Increases Beating Rate but Not Contractility in Rat Right Atrium. Comparison with Isoproterenol. J Mol Cell Cardiol 10 e0132884 PMID: 26222156
Williams et al (2014) Excitatory drive onto dopaminergic neurons in the rostral linear nucleus is enhanced by norepinephrine in an α1 adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Neuropharmacology 86 116 PMID: 25018040
Silberman and Winder (2013) Corticotropin releasing factor and catecholamines enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala. Neuropharmacology 70 316 PMID: 23470280
Zhang et al (2013) Norepinephrine drives persistent activity in prefrontal cortex via synergistic α1 and α2 adrenoceptors. PLoS One 8 e66122 PMID: 23785477
Zaytseva et al (2013) Resonant waveguide grating biosensor-enabled label-free and fluorescence detection of cell adhesion. Sens Actuators B Chem 188 PMID: 24319319
Clark et al (2010) Reversibly sealed multilayer microfluidic device for integrated cell perfusion and on-line chemical analysis of cultured adipocyte secretions. Anal Bioanal Chem 397 2939 PMID: 20549489
Chigaev et al (2011) Real-time analysis of the inside-out regulation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 revealed similarities to and differences from very late antigen-4. J Biol Chem 286 20375 PMID: 21515675
Nobis et al (2011) β-Adrenergic receptors enhance excitatory transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis through a corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor-dependent and cocaine-regulated mechanism. Biol Psychiatry 69 1083 PMID: 21334600
Maehashi et al (2008) Bitter peptides activate hTAS2Rs, the human bitter receptors. PLoS One 365 851 PMID: 18037373
Hansen and Manahan-Vaughan (2015) Locus Coeruleus Stimulation Facilitates Long-Term Depression in the Dentate Gyrus That Requires Activation of β-Adrenergic Receptors. Eur J Neurosci 25 1889 PMID: 24464942
Zemkova et al (2011) Norepinephrine causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+. Endocrinology 152 3842 PMID: 21828176
Rankovic et al (2011) Modulation of calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca2+ channels via β-adrenergic signaling in thalamocortical relay neurons. PLoS One 6 e27474 PMID: 22164209
Yang et al (2014) PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to β-adrenergic signaling. Diabetes 66 83 PMID: 24225179
Gray et al (2014) Inhibitory interactions between phosphorylation sites in the C terminus of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289 14600 PMID: 24706758
Stoddart et al (2015) Application of BRET to monitor ligand binding to GPCRs. Nat Methods 12 661 PMID: 26030448
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
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Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.