Selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist. DNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 2312) also available.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 252.14. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.97 mL||19.83 mL||39.66 mL|
|5 mM||0.79 mL||3.97 mL||7.93 mL|
|10 mM||0.4 mL||1.98 mL||3.97 mL|
|50 mM||0.08 mL||0.4 mL||0.79 mL|
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.
References are publications that support the products' biological activity.
Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701 PMID: 2899909
Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25 PMID: 2155495
If you know of a relevant reference for DNQX, please let us know.
View Related Products by Product Action
Keywords: Selective non-NMDA antagonists Glutamate AMPA Receptors iGluR Ionotropic Kainate AMPA Receptors
76 Citations for DNQX
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:
Thomsen et al (2016) Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity. Nat Methods 13 87 PMID: 26524239
Haj-Yasein et al (2015) Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus. Brain Struct Funct 220 2469 PMID: 24744149
Malyshev et al (2015) Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding. PLoS One 10 e0122286 PMID: 25850004
Liu et al (2015) Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats. J Biomed Sci 22 79 PMID: 26385355
Dorris et al (2015) Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurophysiol 113 720 PMID: 25376786
Choe et al (2015) High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons. Neuron 85 549 PMID: 25619659
Arama et al (2015) GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 9 290 PMID: 26300728
Deidda et al (2015) Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 18 87 PMID: 25485756
Rosa et al (2015) Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover. Elife 4 PMID: 26274565
Bajo et al (2015) IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala. Front Pharmacol 6 49 PMID: 25852553
Konopacka et al (2015) Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. J Neurosci 35 5144 PMID: 25834041
Sexton et al (2015) Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype. Neural Dev 10 17 PMID: 26091805
Reifler et al (2015) The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors. Exp Eye Res 130 17 PMID: 25450063
Cramer et al (2015) Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse. J Neurosci 35 5664 PMID: 25855180
Vance et al (2015) PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors. J Neurosci 35 776 PMID: 25589770
Hososhima et al (2015) Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins. PLoS One 10 e0119558 PMID: 25789474
Morrie and Feller (2015) An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina. J Neurosci 35 9281 PMID: 26109653
Pedroni et al (2014) Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth. Front Cell Neurosci 8 44 PMID: 24592213
Dale et al (2014) Vortioxetine disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus. J Psychopharmacol 28 891 PMID: 25122043
Castaño et al (2014) Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells. Stem Cell Reports 3 1118 PMID: 25458894
Llano et al (2014) An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse. J Neurophysiol 111 197 PMID: 24108796
Armbrust et al (2014) Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5. J Neurosci 34 9891 PMID: 25057192
Albrecht et al (2014) Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse. Front Neural Circuits 8 83 PMID: 25120436
Lee et al (2014) Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db. Nature 509 195 PMID: 24695230
Jones et al (2014) Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. PLoS One 9 e109303 PMID: 25290690
Rovó et al (2014) Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations. J Neurosci 34 7137 PMID: 24849349
Dragicevic et al (2014) Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Brain 137 2287 PMID: 24934288
Cijsouw et al (2014) Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner. J Cell Biol 204 759 PMID: 24590174
Lau et al (2013) A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation. Neuron 79 492 PMID: 23931998
Rehak et al (2013) Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes. PLoS One 8 e61844 PMID: 23626738
Crawford et al (2013) Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons. ACS Chem Neurosci 4 200 PMID: 23336059
Cusulin et al (2013) Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice. PLoS One 8 e64943 PMID: 23724107
Cruz et al (2013) Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 38 364 PMID: 22968812
Fuchs et al (2013) GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Eur J Neurosci 38 3146 PMID: 23909897
Grant et al (2012) Development of the corticothalamic projections. Front Neurosci 6 53 PMID: 22586359
Haam et al (2012) GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells. J Neurosci 32 572 PMID: 22238092
Bajo et al (2012) Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala. Addict Biol 17 694 PMID: 21955024
Hook et al (2012) Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat. Eur J Neurosci 35 507 PMID: 22304466
Engbers et al (2012) Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 2601 PMID: 22308379
Hnasko et al (2012) Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci 32 15076 PMID: 23100428
Saliba et al (2012) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current. EMBO J 31 2937 PMID: 22531784
Bospoort et al (2012) Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons. J Cell Biol 199 883 PMID: 23229896
Reali et al (2011) GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord. J Physiol 589 5633 PMID: 21911613
Crosby et al (2011) Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits. Neuron 71 529 PMID: 21835348
Tang et al (2011) Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors. J Neurosci 31 10009 PMID: 21734292
Schnell et al (2011) Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex. PLoS One 6 e26309 PMID: 22039458
Ripley et al (2011) Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 367 PMID: 21173224
Schmidt and Kofuji (2011) Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. J Comp Neurol 519 1492 PMID: 21452206
Torborg et al (2010) Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance. J Neurosci 30 15628 PMID: 21084618
Rinetti and Schweizer (2010) Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons. J Neurosci 30 3157 PMID: 20203175
Olmos-Serrano et al (2010) Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci 30 9929 PMID: 20660275
Stevens et al (2010) Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina. Neuroreport 21 239 PMID: 20101193
Llano et al (2009) Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 101 3325 PMID: 19321634
Citri et al (2009) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Eur J Neurosci 30 1443 PMID: 19821836
Kramár et al (2009) Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity. J Neurosci 29 12982 PMID: 19828812
Fan and Cooper (2009) Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50 917 PMID: 18836176
Schmidt and Kofuji (2009) Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 29 476 PMID: 19144848
Furness et al (2008) A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2). Neuroscience 157 80 PMID: 18805467
Guitton and Dudai (2008) Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma. Neural Plast 2007 80904 PMID: 18301716
Jüngling et al (2008) Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Neuron 59 298 PMID: 18667157
Terunuma et al (2008) Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus. J Neurosci 28 376 PMID: 18184780
Krook-Magnuson et al (2008) Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex. J Neurophysiol 100 932 PMID: 18509076
Molineux et al (2008) Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons. J Neurophysiol 100 2684 PMID: 18768644
Biou et al (2008) Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 1038 PMID: 18195348
Chen et al (2007) Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP. J Neurosci 27 5363 PMID: 17507558
Young et al (2007) Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex. Neurobiol Dis 26 78 PMID: 17240155
Jara et al (2007) Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death. J Neurochem 100 1407 PMID: 17241124
Ting et al (2007) Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 353 PMID: 17185415
Ince-Dunn et al (2006) Regulation of thalamocortical patterning and synaptic maturation by NeuroD2. Neuron 49 683 PMID: 16504944
Kopp et al (2006) Insufficient sleep reversibly alters bidirectional synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. J Neurosci 26 12456 PMID: 17135407
Singh et al (2006) Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 26 7189 PMID: 16822976
Perez-Leon et al (2006) Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Eur J Neurosci 24 1117 PMID: 16930437
Jacob et al (2005) Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons. J Neurosci 25 2853 PMID: 15772345
Shleper et al (2005) D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices. J Neurosci 25 9413 PMID: 16221850
Fujino and Oertel (2003) Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 265 PMID: 12486245
Lafourcade et al Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex. PLoS One 2 e709 PMID: 17684555
Do you know of a great paper that uses DNQX from Tocris? If so please let us know.
Literature in this Area
The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.
Learning & Memory Poster
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.