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Biological Activity for DNQX
DNQX is a selective non-NMDA receptor antagonist.
Water-soluble Salt also available.
Compound Libraries for DNQX
Technical Data for DNQX
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for DNQX
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for DNQX
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 252.14. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.97 mL||19.83 mL||39.66 mL|
|5 mM||0.79 mL||3.97 mL||7.93 mL|
|10 mM||0.4 mL||1.98 mL||3.97 mL|
|50 mM||0.08 mL||0.4 mL||0.79 mL|
References for DNQX
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701 PMID: 2899909
Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25 PMID: 2155495
If you know of a relevant reference for DNQX, please let us know.
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Keywords: DNQX, DNQX supplier, Selective, non-NMDA, antagonists, Glutamate, AMPA, Receptors, iGluR, Ionotropic, Kainate, 0189, Tocris Bioscience
110 Citations for DNQX
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DNQX include:
Fan et al (2016) Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice. Front Cell Neurosci 10 74 PMID: 27047338
Bengtson et al (2013) Calcium responses to synaptically activated bursts of action potentials and their synapse-independent replay in cultured networks of hippocampal neurons. Biochim Biophys Acta 1833 1672 PMID: 23360982
Lee et al (2013) TRPM2 channels are required for NMDA-induced burst firing and contribute to H(2)O(2)-dependent modulation in substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neurons. J Neurosci 33 1157 PMID: 23325252
Deeb et al (2013) Disrupted Cl(-) homeostasis contributes to reductions in the inhibitory efficacy of D.pam during hyperexcited states. Eur J Neurosci 38 2453 PMID: 23627375
Caiati et al (2013) PrPC controls via protein kinase A the direction of synaptic plasticity in the immature hippocampus. J Neurosci 33 2973 PMID: 23407955
Boehlen et al (2013) Contribution of near-threshold currents to intrinsic oscillatory activity in rat medial entorhinal cortex layer II stellate cells. J Neurophysiol 109 445 PMID: 23076110
Pasquale and Sherman (2013) A modulatory effect of the feedback from higher visual areas to V1 in the mouse. J Neurophysiol 109 2618 PMID: 23446698
Rinetti and Schweizer (2010) Ubiquitination acutely regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons. J Neurosci 30 3157 PMID: 20203175
Wamsteeker et al (2010) Repeated stress impairs endocannabinoid signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neurosci 30 11188 PMID: 20720126
Zhang et al (2010) A p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism of disinhibition in spinal synaptic transmission induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Neurosci 30 12844 PMID: 20861388
Barkis et al (2010) Non-cell-autonomous factor induces the transition from excitatory to inhibitory GABA signaling in retina independent of activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 22302 PMID: 21135238
Citri et al (2010) Calcium binding to PICK1 is essential for the intracellular retention of AMPA receptors underlying long-term depression. J Neurosci 30 16437 PMID: 21147983
Shleper et al (2005) D-serine is the dominant endogenous coagonist for NMDA receptor neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slices. J Neurosci 25 9413 PMID: 16221850
Jacob et al (2005) Signaling microdomains regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated intracellular calcium transients in cultured neurons. J Neurosci 25 2853 PMID: 15772345
Meijer et al (2019) A Single-Cell Model for Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons. Cell Rep 27 2199 PMID: 31091456
Bajo et al (2015) IL-1 interacts with ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission in the mouse central amygdala. Front Pharmacol 6 49 PMID: 25852553
Choe et al (2015) High salt intake increases blood pressure via BDNF-mediated downregulation of KCC2 and impaired baroreflex inhibition of vasopressin neurons. Neuron 85 549 PMID: 25619659
Arama et al (2015) GABAA receptor activity shapes the formation of inhibitory synapses between developing medium spiny neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 9 290 PMID: 26300728
Deidda et al (2015) Early depolarizing GABA controls critical-period plasticity in the rat visual cortex. Nat Neurosci 18 87 PMID: 25485756
Rosa et al (2015) Neuron-glia signaling in developing retina mediated by neurotransmitter spillover. Elife 4 PMID: 26274565
Konopacka et al (2015) Osmoregulation requires brain expression of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. J Neurosci 35 5144 PMID: 25834041
Sexton et al (2015) Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype. Neural Dev 10 17 PMID: 26091805
Reifler et al (2015) The rat retina has five types of ganglion-cell photoreceptors. Exp Eye Res 130 17 PMID: 25450063
Cramer et al (2015) Abnormal excitability and episodic low-frequency oscillations in the cerebral cortex of the tottering mouse. J Neurosci 35 5664 PMID: 25855180
Vance et al (2015) PAR1-activated astrocytes in the nucleus of the solitary tract stimulate adjacent neurons via NMDA receptors. J Neurosci 35 776 PMID: 25589770
Hososhima et al (2015) Kinetic evaluation of photosensitivity in bi-stable variants of chimeric channelrhodopsins. PLoS One 10 e0119558 PMID: 25789474
Messer and Levine (2012) Epileptiform activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus becomes refractory to attenuation by cannabinoids in part because of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid type B receptor activity. J Neurosci Res 90 1454 PMID: 22388975
Fan and Cooper (2009) Glutamate-induced NFκB activation in the retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50 917 PMID: 18836176
Schmidt and Kofuji (2009) Functional and morphological differences among intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 29 476 PMID: 19144848
Faria (2004) Protective effect of ifenprodil against spreading depression in the mouse entorhinal cortex. J Neurophysiol 92 2610 PMID: 15201313
Fujino and Oertel (2003) Bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum-like mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 265 PMID: 12486245
Owen and Grover (2015) Activity-dependent differences in function between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals. J Neurophysiol 113 3646 PMID: 25855695
Morrie and Feller (2015) An Asymmetric Increase in Inhibitory Synapse Number Underlies the Development of a Direction Selective Circuit in the Retina. J Neurosci 35 9281 PMID: 26109653
Lee et al (2014) Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db. Nature 509 195 PMID: 24695230
Jones et al (2014) Neonatal NMDA receptor blockade disrupts spike timing and glutamatergic synapses in fast spiking interneurons in a NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. PLoS One 9 e109303 PMID: 25290690
Dragicevic et al (2014) Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra DA neurons. Brain 137 2287 PMID: 24934288
Rovó et al (2014) Phasic, nonsynaptic GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition entrains thalamocortical oscillations. J Neurosci 34 7137 PMID: 24849349
Cijsouw et al (2014) Munc18-1 redistributes in nerve terminals in an activity- and PKC-dependent manner. J Cell Biol 204 759 PMID: 24590174
Laviv et al (2011) Compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor signaling complex is required for presynaptic inhibition at hippocampal synapses. J Neurosci 31 12523 PMID: 21880914
Potapenko et al (2011) Inhibitory-excitatory synaptic balance is shifted toward increased excitation in magnocellular neurosecretory cells of heart failure rats. J Neurophysiol 106 1545 PMID: 21697450
Hisadome et al (2011) CCK stimulation of GLP-1 neurons involves α1-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Diabetes 60 2701 PMID: 21885869
Zheng and Raman (2011) Prolonged postinhibitory rebound firing in the cerebellar nuclei mediated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor potentiation of L-type calcium currents. J Neurosci 31 10283 PMID: 21753005
Llano et al (2009) Rapid and sensitive mapping of long-range connections in vitro using flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging combined with laser photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 101 3325 PMID: 19321634
Min et al (1999) Synaptically released glutamate reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition in the hippocampus via kainate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 9932 PMID: 10449797
Fedele and Raiteri (1996) Desensitization of AMPA receptors and AMPA-NMDA receptor interaction: an in vivo cyclic GMP microdialysis study in rat cerebellum. Br J Pharmacol 117 1133 PMID: 8882607
Lafourcade et al Molecular components and functions of the endocannabinoid system in mouse prefrontal cortex. PLoS One 2 e709 PMID: 17684555
Flossmann et al (2019) Somatostatin Interneurons Promote Neuronal Synchrony in the Neonatal Hippocampus. Cell Rep 26 3173 PMID: 30893591
Ahsan Raza (2017) HIPP neurons in the dentate gyrus mediate the cholinergic modulation of background context memory salience. Nat Commun 8 189 PMID: 28775269
Pedroni et al (2014) Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth. Front Cell Neurosci 8 44 PMID: 24592213
Dale et al (2014) Vort. disinhibits pyramidal cell function and enhances synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus. J Psychopharmacol 28 891 PMID: 25122043
Castaño et al (2014) Fast and efficient neural conversion of human hematopoietic cells. Stem Cell Reports 3 1118 PMID: 25458894
Llano et al (2014) An auditory colliculothalamocortical brain slice preparation in mouse. J Neurophysiol 111 197 PMID: 24108796
Armbrust et al (2014) Mutant β-III spectrin causes mGluR1α mislocalization and functional deficits in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 5. J Neurosci 34 9891 PMID: 25057192
Albrecht et al (2014) Inhibitory projections from the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body in the mouse. Front Neural Circuits 8 83 PMID: 25120436
Lau et al (2013) A conformational intermediate in glutamate receptor activation. Neuron 79 492 PMID: 23931998
Rehak et al (2013) Low voltage activation of KCa1.1 current by Cav3-KCa1.1 complexes. PLoS One 8 e61844 PMID: 23626738
Crawford et al (2013) Social stress alters inhibitory synaptic input to distinct subpopulations of raphe serotonin neurons. ACS Chem Neurosci 4 200 PMID: 23336059
Cusulin et al (2013) Characterization of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of Crh-IRES-Cre mutant mice. PLoS One 8 e64943 PMID: 23724107
Cruz et al (2013) Ghrelin increases GABAergic transmission and interacts with ethanol actions in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 38 364 PMID: 22968812
Schmidt and Kofuji (2011) Structure and function of bistratified intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the mouse. J Comp Neurol 519 1492 PMID: 21452206
Citri et al (2009) N-MthD.-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Eur J Neurosci 30 1443 PMID: 19821836
Kramár et al (2009) Cytoskeletal changes underlie estrogen's acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity. J Neurosci 29 12982 PMID: 19828812
Terunuma et al (2008) Deficits in phosphorylation of GABA(A) receptors by intimately associated protein kinase C activity underlie compromised synaptic inhibition during status epilepticus. J Neurosci 28 376 PMID: 18184780
Krook-Magnuson et al (2008) Tonically active inhibition selectively controls feedforward circuits in mouse barrel cortex. J Neurophysiol 100 932 PMID: 18509076
Molineux et al (2008) Ionic factors governing rebound burst phenotype in rat deep cerebellar neurons. J Neurophysiol 100 2684 PMID: 18768644
Biou et al (2008) Endocytosis and recycling of AMPA receptors lacking GluR2/3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 1038 PMID: 18195348
Furness et al (2008) A quantitative assessment of glutamate uptake into hippocampal synaptic terminals and astrocytes: new insights into a neuronal role for excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2). Neuroscience 157 80 PMID: 18805467
Guitton and Dudai (2008) Blockade of cochlear NMDA receptors prevents long-term tinnitus during a brief consolidation window after acoustic trauma. Neural Plast 2007 80904 PMID: 18301716
Jüngling et al (2008) Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Neuron 59 298 PMID: 18667157
Fuchs et al (2013) GABA(A) receptors can initiate the formation of functional inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Eur J Neurosci 38 3146 PMID: 23909897
Reali et al (2011) GABAergic signalling in a neurogenic niche of the turtle spinal cord. J Physiol 589 5633 PMID: 21911613
Crosby et al (2011) Endocannabinoids gate state-dependent plasticity of synaptic inhibition in feeding circuits. Neuron 71 529 PMID: 21835348
Safiulina et al (2008) Low expression of Kv7/M channels facilitates intrinsic and network bursting in the developing rat hippocampus. J Physiol 586 5437 PMID: 18801845
Thomsen et al (2016) Fixed single-cell transcriptomic characterization of human radial glial diversity. Nat Methods 13 87 PMID: 26524239
Haj-Yasein et al (2015) Deletion of aquaporin-4 increases extracellular K(+) concentration during synaptic stimulation in mouse hippocampus. Brain Struct Funct 220 2469 PMID: 24744149
Malyshev et al (2015) Advantages and limitations of the use of optogenetic approach in studying fast-scale spike encoding. PLoS One 10 e0122286 PMID: 25850004
Liu et al (2015) Morphological and physiological evidence of a synaptic connection between the lateral parabrachial nucleus and neurons in the A7 catecholamine cell group in rats. J Biomed Sci 22 79 PMID: 26385355
Dorris et al (2015) Intrinsic excitability varies by sex in prepubertal striatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurophysiol 113 720 PMID: 25376786
Hook et al (2012) DArgic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat. Eur J Neurosci 35 507 PMID: 22304466
Engbers et al (2012) Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels modulate summation of parallel fiber input in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109 2601 PMID: 22308379
Hnasko et al (2012) Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci 32 15076 PMID: 23100428
Bospoort et al (2012) Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons. J Cell Biol 199 883 PMID: 23229896
Saliba et al (2012) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of GABAA receptors regulates receptor insertion and tonic current. EMBO J 31 2937 PMID: 22531784
Schnell et al (2011) Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex. PLoS One 6 e26309 PMID: 22039458
Tang et al (2011) Neto1 is an auxiliary subunit of native synaptic kainate receptors. J Neurosci 31 10009 PMID: 21734292
Ripley et al (2011) Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 367 PMID: 21173224
Marsden et al (2007) NMDA receptor activation potentiates inhibitory transmission through GABA receptor-associated protein-dependent exocytosis of GABA(A) receptors. J Neurosci 27 14326 PMID: 18160640
Ferlauto et al (2018) Design and validation of a foldable and photovoltaic wide-field epiretinal prosthesis. Nat Commun 9 992 PMID: 29520006
González-Rueda et al (2018) Activity-Dependent Downscaling of Subthreshold Synaptic Inputs during Slow-Wave-Sleep-like Activity In Vivo. Neuron 97 1244 PMID: 29503184
Armbruster et al (2014) Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion. Front Cell Neurosci 8 277 PMID: 25249939
Kallupi et al (2014) Nociceptin/orphanin FQ decreases glutamate transmission and blocks ethanol-induced effects in the central amygdala of naive and ethanol-dependent rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 39 1081 PMID: 24169802
Grant et al (2012) Development of the corticothalamic projections. Front Neurosci 6 53 PMID: 22586359
Haam et al (2012) GABA is excitatory in adult vasopressinergic neuroendocrine cells. J Neurosci 32 572 PMID: 22238092
Bajo et al (2012) Receptor subtype-dependent galanin actions on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission and ethanol responses in the central amygdala. Addict Biol 17 694 PMID: 21955024
Olmos-Serrano et al (2010) Defective GABAergic neurotransmission and pharmacological rescue of neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci 30 9929 PMID: 20660275
Stevens et al (2010) Light-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated currents are reduced by blocking D-serine synthesis in the salamander retina. Neuroreport 21 239 PMID: 20101193
Torborg et al (2010) Control of CA3 output by feedforward inhibition despite developmental changes in the excitation-inhibition balance. J Neurosci 30 15628 PMID: 21084618
Chen et al (2007) Changes in synaptic morphology accompany actin signaling during LTP. J Neurosci 27 5363 PMID: 17507558
Young et al (2007) Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex. Neurobiol Dis 26 78 PMID: 17240155
Jara et al (2007) Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates NMDA receptor activity in mouse cortical neurons resulting in ERK-dependent death. J Neurochem 100 1407 PMID: 17241124
Ting et al (2007) Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 353 PMID: 17185415
Singh et al (2006) Altered balance of glutamatergic/GABAergic synaptic input and associated changes in dendrite morphology after BDNF expression in BDNF-deficient hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 26 7189 PMID: 16822976
Perez-Leon et al (2006) Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. Eur J Neurosci 24 1117 PMID: 16930437
Thalman et al (2018) Synaptic phospholipids as a new target for cortical hyperexcitability and E/I balance in psychiatric disorders. Mol Psychiatry 23 1699 PMID: 29743582
Cai and Ford (2018) DA Cells Differentially Regulate Striatal Cholinergic Transmission across Regions through Corelease of DA and Glutamate. Cell Rep 25 3148 PMID: 30540946
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DNQX was used to block spontaneous AMPA-receptor – generated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in stem-cell derived cultured dopamine neurons. 20 µM DNQX fully suppressed EPSC propagation, thus confirming the compound's specificity (see illustration). Preparation of 10 mM DMSO stock requires long sonication; in all other respects it is a perfect AMPA-receptor antagonist.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
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