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CNQX disodium salt
|Storage||Desiccate at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 276.12. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.2 mM||18.11 mL||90.54 mL||181.08 mL|
|1 mM||3.62 mL||18.11 mL||36.22 mL|
|2 mM||1.81 mL||9.05 mL||18.11 mL|
|10 mM||0.36 mL||1.81 mL||3.62 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701 PMID: 2899909
King et al (1992) Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 107 375 PMID: 1358390
Long et al (1990) Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 100 850 PMID: 1976402
Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25 PMID: 2155495
If you know of a relevant reference for CNQX disodium salt, please let us know.
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Keywords: CNQX disodium salt, CNQX disodium salt supplier, water, soluble, Glutamate, AMPA, Receptors, iGlur, Ionotropic, Kainate, antagonists, 1045, Tocris Bioscience
33 Citations for CNQX disodium salt
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX disodium salt include:
Green and Thayer et al (2019) HIV gp120 upregulates tonic inhibition through α5-containing GABAARs. Neuropharmacology 149 161 PMID: 30797029
Spoljaric et al (2019) KCC2-Mediated Cl- Extrusion Modulates Spontaneous Hippocampal Network Events in Perinatal Rats and Mice. Cell Rep 26 1073 PMID: 30699338
Villers et al (2014) Long-term potentiation can be induced in the CA1 region of hippocampus in the absence of αCaMKII T286-autophosphorylation. Learn Mem 21 616 PMID: 25322797
Baltz and Voigt (2015) Interaction of electrically evoked activity with intrinsic dynamics of cultured cortical networks with and without functional fast GABAergic synaptic transmission. Front Cell Neurosci 9 272 PMID: 26236196
Carlson et al (2012) Pharmacological evidence that D-aspartate activates a current distinct from ionotropic glutamate receptor currents in Aplysia californica. Brain Behav 2 391 PMID: 22950043
Riquelme et al (2018) Subcellular Localization and Activity of TRPM4 in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Layer 2/3. Front Cell Neurosci 12 12 PMID: 29440991
Paul et al (2017) Transcriptional Architecture of Synaptic Communication Delineates GABAergic Neuron Identity. Cell 171 522 PMID: 28942923
Philippart et al (2016) Differential Somatic Ca2+ Channel Profile in Midbrain DArgic Neurons The Journal of Neuroscience 6 7234 PMID: 27383597
Schubert et al (2014) Paraneoplastic CDR2 and CDR2L antibodies affect Purkinje cell calcium homeostasis. Acta Neuropathol 128 835 PMID: 25341622
Leroy et al (2018) A circuit from hippocampal CA2 to lateral septum disinhibits social aggression. Nature 564 213 PMID: 30518859
Jalalvand et al (2018) Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Neurons Sense pH Changes and Motion in the Hypothalamus. J Neurosci 38 7713 PMID: 30037834
Yuan et al (2018) A role for proteolytic regulation of δ-catenin in remodeling a subpopulation of dendritic spines in the rodent brain. J Biol Chem 293 11625 PMID: 29875160
Piet et al (2016) Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Excites GnRH Neurons in Male and Female Mice. Endocrinology. 157 3621 PMID: 27501185
Doshina et al (2017) Cortical cells reveal APP as a new player in the regulation of GABAergic neurotransmission. Sci Rep 7 370 PMID: 28337033
Cazares et al (2016) Dynamic Partitioning of Synaptic Vesicle Pools by the SNARE-Binding Protein Tomosyn. J Neurosci 36 11208 PMID: 27807164
Guo et al (2012) Tissue engineering the monosynaptic circuit of the stretch reflex arc with co-culture of embryonic motoneurons and proprioceptive sensory neurons. Biomaterials 33 5723 PMID: 22594977
Janssen et al (2012) Neuregulin directly decreases voltage-gated sodium current in hippocampal ErbB4-expressing interneurons. J Neurosci 32 13889 PMID: 23035098
Gutzmann et al (2019) Functional Coupling of Cav2.3 and BK Potassium Channels Regulates Action Potential Repolarization and Short-Term Plasticity in the Mouse Hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 13 27 PMID: 30846929
Edwards et al (2017) Comparison of NMDA and AMPA Channel Expression and Function between Embryonic and Adult Neurons Utilizing Microelectrode Array Systems. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 3 3525 PMID: 29250595
Medrihan et al (2017) Initiation of Behavioral Response to Antidepressants by Cholecystokinin Neurons of the Dentate Gyrus. Neuron 95 564 PMID: 28735749
Maschi and Klyachko (2017) Spatiotemporal Regulation of Synaptic Vesicle Fusion Sites in Central Synapses. Neuron 94 65 PMID: 28343869
Athilingam et al (2017) Serotonin enhances excitability and gamma frequency temporal integration in mouse prefrontal fast-spiking interneurons. Elife 6 PMID: 29206101
Chaffiol et al (2017) A New Promoter Allows Optogenetic Vision Restoration with Enhanced Sensitivity in Macaque Retina. Mol Ther 25 2546 PMID: 28807567
Sternfeld et al (2017) Speed and segmentation control mechanisms characterized in rhythmically-active circuits created from spinal neurons produced from genetically-tagged embryonic stem cells. Elife 6 PMID: 28195039
Yuan et al (2009) The serine protease plasmin cleaves the amino-terminal domain of the NR2A subunit to relieve zinc inhibition of the N-MthD.-aspartate receptors. J Biol Chem 284 12862 PMID: 19240037
Kiritoshi and Neugebauer (2018) Pathway-specific alterations of cortico-amygdala transmission in an arthritis pain model. ACS Chem Neurosci 9 2252 PMID: 29630339
Grillo et al (2018) A Distance-Dependent Distribution of Presynaptic Boutons Tunes Frequency-Dependent Dendritic Integration. Neuron 99 275 PMID: 29983327
Li et al (2016) A Cortical Circuit for Sexually Dimorphic Oxytocin-Dependent Anxiety Behaviors. Cell 167 60 PMID: 27641503
Mauger et al (2016) Targeted Intron Retention and Excision for Rapid Gene Regulation in Response to Neuronal Activity. Neuron 92 1266 PMID: 28009274
Styr et al (2019) Mitochondrial Regulation of the Hippocampal Firing Rate Set Point and Seizure Susceptibility. Neuron 102 1009 PMID: 31047779
Schitine et al (2015) Functional plasticity of GAT-3 in avian Müller cells is regulated by neurons via a glutamatergic input. J Neurosci 82 42 PMID: 25700791
Zhao et al (2015) Extracellular glutamate exposure facilitates group I mGluR-mediated epileptogenesis in the hippocampus. Neuropsychopharmacology 35 308 PMID: 25568123
Einarsson et al (2015) Systems reconsolidation reveals a selective role for the anterior cingulate cortex in generalized contextual fear memory expression. J Endocrinol 40 480 PMID: 25091528
Do you know of a great paper that uses CNQX disodium salt from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for CNQX disodium salt
Average Rating: 4.3 (Based on 3 Reviews.)
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AMPA antagonist used in whole cell recordings. We made a stock solution at 20mM in water and dilute to 10uM for experiments. EPSCs are wiped out, so this concentration appears effective despite concerns over uniformity.
The stock solution does not look uniform, so we stir it well before diluting to final concentration. In the picture you can see how the drug is coming out of solution (powder on the walls of the vial).
AMPA receptor antagonist used at 20uM in rat brain slice
Stock solution is little sticky. Voltex well before making dilution.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.
Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Learning & Memory Poster
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.