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Clozapine N-oxide dihydrochloride
Water soluble salt of Clozapine N-oxide (Cat.No.4936). Activator of muscarinic DREADDs. Exhibits improved bioavailability (6 - 7-fold higher plasma concentration) compared with CNO, with less conversion to clozapine in animal studies.
|Storage||Desiccate at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 415.74. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||2.41 mL||12.03 mL||24.05 mL|
|5 mM||0.48 mL||2.41 mL||4.81 mL|
|10 mM||0.24 mL||1.2 mL||2.41 mL|
|50 mM||0.05 mL||0.24 mL||0.48 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Eiermann et al (1997) The involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of cloz. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 44 439 PMID: 9384460
Ambruster et al (2007) Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligand. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 104 5163 PMID: 17360345
Zaman et al (2014) LMO4 is essential for paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal activity and calcium channel expression to prevent hyperphagia. J.Neurosci. 34 140 PMID: 24381275
Gomez et al (2017) Chemogenetics revealed: DREADD occupancy and activation via converted cloz. Science 357 503 PMID: 28774929
Roth et al (2016) DREADDs for Neuroscientists. Neuron 89 683 PMID: 26889809
Nakajima et al (2016) Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake. Nat.Commun. 8 10268 PMID: 26743492
Allen et al (2019) A comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of cloz. N-oxide and cloz. N-oxide hydrochloride salt in rhesus macaques. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 368 199 PMID: 30523062
If you know of a relevant reference for Clozapine N-oxide dihydrochloride, please let us know.
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Chemogenetics Research Bulletin
Produced by Tocris, the chemogenetics research bulletin provides an introduction to chemogenetic methods to manipulate neuronal activity. It outlines the development of RASSLs, DREADDs and PSAMs, and the use of chemogenetic compounds. DREADD ligands and PSEMs available from Tocris are highlighted.
Allosteric GPCR Pharmacology PosterNew
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are intrinsically allosteric proteins. This poster highlights some of the key insights into allosteric mechanisms of GPCR biology, highlighting key facets of GPCR allostery and therapeutic applications of allosteric modulators.
GPCR Efficacy and Biased Agonism PosterNew
GPCRs can interact with multiple distinct transducers or regulatory proteins and these can be preferentially engaged in an agonist-specific manner giving rise to biased agonism. This poster discusses cutting edge GPCR signaling pharmacology and highlights therapeutic applications of biased agonism.