Metabolite of clozapine (Cat. No. 0444). Activates human muscarinic designer receptors (DREADDs) in vitro. Silences hippocampal neurons expressing hM4 DREADDs in vitro. Activates Gs-linked DREADDS- AgRP in mice via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection. Shown to be a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump substrate. Other potent and selective hM3Dq DREADD agonists available: DREADD agonist 21 and Perlapine.
Water soluble salt also available.
This product contains 1 molar equivalent of ethanol.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 342.82. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.2 mM||14.58 mL||72.92 mL||145.85 mL|
|1 mM||2.92 mL||14.58 mL||29.17 mL|
|2 mM||1.46 mL||7.29 mL||14.58 mL|
|10 mM||0.29 mL||1.46 mL||2.92 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Eiermann et al (1997) The involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of clozapine. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 44 439 PMID: 9384460
Armbruster et al (2007) Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligand. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 104 5163 PMID: 17360345
Zaman et al (2014) LMO4 is essential for paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal activity and calcium channel expression to prevent hyperphagia. J.Neurosci. 34 140 PMID: 24381275
Gomez et al (2017) Chemogenetics revealed: DREADD occupancy and activation via converted clozapine. Science 357 503 PMID: 28774929
Nakajima et al (2016) Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake. Nat. Commun. 8 10268 PMID: 26743492
Roth (2016) DREADDs for Neuroscientists Neuron 89 683 PMID: 26889809
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Keywords: Clozapine N-oxide, Clozapine N-oxide supplier, clozapine, metabolite, 5HT2A/2C, non-selective, receptors, serotonin, 5HT2C, 5HT2, 5HT2A, dopaminergic, dopamine, antagonists, D4, clozapine-N-oxide, DREADDs, DREADD, Ligands, muscarnic, designer, CNO, Multidrug, Transporters, Non-selective, Muscarinics, 4936, Tocris Bioscience
14 Citations for Clozapine N-oxide
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Clozapine N-oxide include:
Meira et al (2018) A hippocampal circuit linking dorsal CA2 to ventral CA1 critical for social memory dynamics. Nat.Commun. 9 4163 PMID: 30301899
Adekunbi et al (2018) Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice. J Neuroendocrinol 30 e12572 PMID: 29356147
Jiang et al (2018) Cholinergic neurons in medial septum maintain anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain. Neurosci Letts 671 7 PMID: 29410218
Zhang et al (2017) Inhibiting medial septal cholinergic neurons with DREADD alleviated anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Neurosci Letts 18 139 PMID: 27939976
Roman et al (2017) A tale of two circuits: CCKNTS neuron stimulation controls appetite and induces opposing motivational states by projections to distinct brain regions. Neuroscience 358 316 PMID: 28684275
Pina and Cunningham et al (2017) Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 137 83 PMID: 27866960
Ge et al (2017) Glutamatergic projections from the entorhinal cortex to dorsal dentate gyrus mediate context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 42 1860 PMID: 28106041
Schwartz et al (2017) Cortico-accumbens regulation of approach-avoidance behavior Is modified by experience and chronic pain. Cell Rep 19 1522 PMID: 28538173
Amat (2017) Using c-kit to genetically target cerebellar molecular layer interneurons in adult mice. PLoS One 12 e0179347 PMID: 28658323
Rapanelli (2017) Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 6599 PMID: 28584117
Attinger (2017) Visuomotor coupling shapes the functional development of mouse visual cortex. Cell 169 1291 PMID: 28602353
Pina and Cunningham (2016) Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 137 83 PMID: 27866960
D'Agostino et al (2016) Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit. PLoS Biol 5 PMID: 26974347
Yuan and Grutzendler (2016) Attenuation of β-Amyloid Deposition and Neurotoxicity by Chemogenetic Modulation of Neural Activity. J Neurosci 36 632 PMID: 26758850
Do you know of a great paper that uses Clozapine N-oxide from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for Clozapine N-oxide
Average Rating: 4.6 (Based on 7 Reviews.)
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Soluble in 0.9% saline. Perfused in brain slice experiment with patch clamp study.
CNO was used in pair with DREADD mice for a pain related experiment to determine whether inhibiting PBN neurons will attenuate pain reponses. Publication under second revision for Cell.
Product provides publishable work, no issues arose when dealing with the substance.
I injected clozapine N-oxide in rats (IP, 1 mg/ml/kg). The rats had previously underwent stereotaxic surgery in which a virus carrying a gene for a Gi DREADD was infused unilaterally into the dorsal striatum.
In vivo chemogenetic experiments - CNO was added to the drinking water. While there are issues with the back conversion of CNO to clozapine, this is not the manufacturer's problem. CNO experiments still generate important data as long as they utilize proper controls
Added saccharine to counteract bitter taste of DMSO used to dissolve CNO
We use it as both injectable pass the blood brain barrier ICV, and IP injections. We are looking at both behavioral concern and brain regional efficacy in regard to DREADD. So far, this product has been selectively turning on/off our target cells.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Chemogenetics Research Bulletin
Produced by Tocris, the chemogenetics research bulletin provides an introduction to chemogenetic methods to manipulate neuronal activity. It outlines the development of RASSLs, DREADDs and PSAMs, and the use of chemogenetic compounds. DREADD ligands and PSEMs available from Tocris are highlighted.