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Metabolite of clozapine (Cat. No. 0444). Activates human muscarinic designer receptors (DREADDs) in vitro. Silences hippocampal neurons expressing hM4 DREADDs in vitro. Activates Gs-linked DREADDS- AgRP in mice via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection. Shown to be a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump substrate. Other potent and selective hM3Dq DREADD agonists available: DREADD agonist 21 and Perlapine.
Water soluble salt also available.
This product contains 1 molar equivalent of ethanol.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 342.82. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.2 mM||14.58 mL||72.92 mL||145.85 mL|
|1 mM||2.92 mL||14.58 mL||29.17 mL|
|2 mM||1.46 mL||7.29 mL||14.58 mL|
|10 mM||0.29 mL||1.46 mL||2.92 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Eiermann et al (1997) The involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of cloz. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 44 439 PMID: 9384460
Armbruster et al (2007) Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligand. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 104 5163 PMID: 17360345
Zaman et al (2014) LMO4 is essential for paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal activity and calcium channel expression to prevent hyperphagia. J.Neurosci. 34 140 PMID: 24381275
Gomez et al (2017) Chemogenetics revealed: DREADD occupancy and activation via converted cloz. Science 357 503 PMID: 28774929
Nakajima et al (2016) Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake. Nat. Commun. 8 10268 PMID: 26743492
Roth (2016) DREADDs for Neuroscientists Neuron 89 683 PMID: 26889809
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Keywords: Clozapine N-oxide, Clozapine N-oxide supplier, clozapine, metabolite, 5HT2A/2C, non-selective, receptors, serotonin, 5HT2C, 5HT2, 5HT2A, dopaminergic, dopamine, antagonists, D4, clozapine-N-oxide, DREADDs, DREADD, Ligands, muscarnic, designer, CNO, Multidrug, Transporters, Non-selective, Muscarinics, 4936, Tocris Bioscience
31 Citations for Clozapine N-oxide
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Clozapine N-oxide include:
Lu et al (2019) Adenosine triphosphate is co-secreted with glucagon-like peptide-1 to modulate intestinal enterocytes and afferent neurons. Nat.commun. 10 1029 PMID: 30833673
Jarovi et al (2019) Prefrontal Theta Oscillations Promote Selective Encoding of Behaviorally Relevant Events. Eneuro 5 PMID: 30693310
Heinsbroek et al (2017) Loss of Plasticity in the D2-Accumbens Pallidal Pathway Promotes Cocaine Seeking. J Neurosci 37 757 PMID: 28123013
Chai et al (2017) Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence. Neuron 95 531 PMID: 28712653
Francois et al (2017) A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins. Neuron 93 822 PMID: 28162807
Nam et al (2019) Activation of Astrocytic μ-Opioid Receptor Causes Conditioned Place Preference Cell Rep 28 1154 PMID: 31365861
McIver et al (2019) Maladaptive Downregulation of Autonomous Subthalamic Nucleus Activity following the Loss of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Cell Rep 28 992 PMID: 31340159
Ma et al (2019) Anterior cingulate cortex modulates the affective-motivative dimension of hyperosmolality-induced thirst. J Physiol
Harding et al (2018) A Neuronal Hub Binding Sleep Initiation and Body Cooling in Response to a Warm External Stimulus. Curr Biol 28 2263 PMID: 30017485
Heiss et al (2018) Parallel Arousal Pathways in the Lateral Hypothalamus. Eneuro 5 PMID: 30225361
Berglind et al (2018) Dynamic interaction of local and transhemispheric networks is necessary for progressive intensification of hippocampal seizures. Sci Rep 8 5669 PMID: 29618778
Hardy et al (2018) The role of calretinin-expressing granule cells in olfactory bulb functions and odor behavior. Sci Rep 8 9385 PMID: 29925844
Terburg et al (2018) The Basolateral Amygdala Is Essential for Rapid Escape: A Human and Rodent Study. Cell 175 723 PMID: 30340041
Gelegen et al (2018) Excitatory Pathways from the Lateral Habenula Enable Propofol-Induced Sedation. Curr Biol 28 580 PMID: 29398217
Lim et al (2016) Neural activity promotes long-distance, target-specific regeneration of adult retinal axons. Nat Neurosci 19 1073 PMID: 27399843
Smith et al (2016) DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience. Behav Neurosci 130 137 PMID: 26913540
Tan et al (2016) Warm-Sensitive Neurons that Control Body Temperature. Cell 167 47 PMID: 27616062
Pina and Cunningham (2016) Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 137 83 PMID: 27866960
D'Agostino et al (2016) Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit. PLoS Biol 5 PMID: 26974347
Meira et al (2018) A hippocampal circuit linking dorsal CA2 to ventral CA1 critical for social memory dynamics. Nat.Commun. 9 4163 PMID: 30301899
Adekunbi et al (2018) Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice. J Neuroendocrinol 30 e12572 PMID: 29356147
Jiang et al (2018) Cholinergic neurons in medial septum maintain anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain. Neurosci Letts 671 7 PMID: 29410218
Yuan and Grutzendler (2016) Attenuation of β-Amyloid Deposition and Neurotoxicity by Chemogenetic Modulation of Neural Activity. J Neurosci 36 632 PMID: 26758850
Zhang et al (2017) Inhibiting medial septal cholinergic neurons with DREADD alleviated anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Neurosci Letts 18 139 PMID: 27939976
Roman et al (2017) A tale of two circuits: CCKNTS neuron stimulation controls appetite and induces opposing motivational states by projections to distinct brain regions. Neuroscience 358 316 PMID: 28684275
Pina and Cunningham et al (2017) Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 137 83 PMID: 27866960
Ge et al (2017) Glutamatergic projections from the entorhinal cortex to dorsal dentate gyrus mediate context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 42 1860 PMID: 28106041
Schwartz et al (2017) Cortico-accumbens regulation of approach-avoidance behavior Is modified by experience and chronic pain. Cell Rep 19 1522 PMID: 28538173
Amat (2017) Using c-kit to genetically target cerebellar molecular layer interneurons in adult mice. PLoS One 12 e0179347 PMID: 28658323
Rapanelli (2017) Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 6599 PMID: 28584117
Attinger (2017) Visuomotor coupling shapes the functional development of mouse visual cortex. Cell 169 1291 PMID: 28602353
Do you know of a great paper that uses Clozapine N-oxide from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for Clozapine N-oxide
Average Rating: 4.6 (Based on 7 Reviews.)
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Soluble in 0.9% saline. Perfused in brain slice experiment with patch clamp study.
CNO was used in pair with DREADD mice for a pain related experiment to determine whether inhibiting PBN neurons will attenuate pain reponses. Publication under second revision for Cell.
Product provides publishable work, no issues arose when dealing with the substance.
I injected clozapine N-oxide in rats (IP, 1 mg/ml/kg). The rats had previously underwent stereotaxic surgery in which a virus carrying a gene for a Gi DREADD was infused unilaterally into the dorsal striatum.
In vivo chemogenetic experiments - CNO was added to the drinking water. While there are issues with the back conversion of CNO to clozapine, this is not the manufacturer's problem. CNO experiments still generate important data as long as they utilize proper controls
Added saccharine to counteract bitter taste of DMSO used to dissolve CNO
We use it as both injectable pass the blood brain barrier ICV, and IP injections. We are looking at both behavioral concern and brain regional efficacy in regard to DREADD. So far, this product has been selectively turning on/off our target cells.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Chemogenetics Research Bulletin
Produced by Tocris, the chemogenetics research bulletin provides an introduction to chemogenetic methods to manipulate neuronal activity. It outlines the development of RASSLs, DREADDs and PSAMs, and the use of chemogenetic compounds. DREADD ligands and PSEMs available from Tocris are highlighted.
Allosteric GPCR Pharmacology PosterNew
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are intrinsically allosteric proteins. This poster highlights some of the key insights into allosteric mechanisms of GPCR biology, highlighting key facets of GPCR allostery and therapeutic applications of allosteric modulators.
GPCR Efficacy and Biased Agonism Poster
GPCRs can interact with multiple distinct transducers or regulatory proteins and these can be preferentially engaged in an agonist-specific manner giving rise to biased agonism. This poster discusses cutting edge GPCR signaling pharmacology and highlights therapeutic applications of biased agonism.