Clozapine N-oxide

Pricing Availability   Qty
Description: Activator of hM3Dq and hM4Di DREADDs
Alternative Names: CNO
Chemical Name: 8-Chloro-11-(4-methyl-4-oxido-1-piperazinyl)-5H-dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepine
Purity: ≥99% (HPLC)
Citations (139)
Reviews (2)
Literature (3)

Biological Activity for Clozapine N-oxide

Clozapine N-oxide is a synthetic ligand for human muscarinic engineered receptors, designer receptors activated by designer drugs (DREADD). Binds and activates hM3Dq and hM4Di DREADDs in vitro and in vivo. Metabolite of Clozapine (Cat. No. 0444). Shown to be a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump substrate.

Example Applications of Clozapine N-oxide (CNO):

  • Silences hippocampal neurons expressing hM4Di DREADDs in vitro
  • Inhibits locomotor activity of mice expressing hM3Dq in GABAergic VTA neurons
  • Inhibits short term memory retrieval in mice expressing hM4Di in hippocampal neurons
  • Induces heat and mechanical hypersensitivity in mice expressing hM4Di in enkephalinergic neurons in the right lumbar dorsal horn
  • Inhibits markers of social aggression in mice expressing hM4Di in hippocampal CA2 neurons

Alternative potent and selective hM3Dq and hM4Di DREADD agonists available: Deschloroclozapine and DREADD agonist 21

Water soluble salt also available.

This product contains 1 molar equivalent of ethanol.

Technical Data for Clozapine N-oxide

M. Wt 342.82
Formula C18H19ClN4O
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥99% (HPLC)
CAS Number 34233-69-7
PubChem ID 2819
Smiles ClC(C=C3)=CC1=C3NC(C=CC=C2)=C2C(N4CC[N+](C)([O-])CC4)=N1

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for Clozapine N-oxide

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 6.86 20

Preparing Stock Solutions for Clozapine N-oxide

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 342.82. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.2 mM 14.58 mL 72.92 mL 145.85 mL
1 mM 2.92 mL 14.58 mL 29.17 mL
2 mM 1.46 mL 7.29 mL 14.58 mL
10 mM 0.29 mL 1.46 mL 2.92 mL

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*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and CoA (available online).

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Product Datasheets for Clozapine N-oxide

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for Clozapine N-oxide

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Eiermann et al (1997) The involvement of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of cloz. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 44 439 PMID: 9384460

Armbruster et al (2007) Evolving the lock to fit the key to create a family of G protein-coupled receptors potently activated by an inert ligand. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 104 5163 PMID: 17360345

Zaman et al (2014) LMO4 is essential for paraventricular hypothalamic neuronal activity and calcium channel expression to prevent hyperphagia. J.Neurosci. 34 140 PMID: 24381275

Gomez et al (2017) Chemogenetics revealed: DREADD occupancy and activation via converted cloz. Science 357 503 PMID: 28774929

Nakajima et al (2016) Gs-coupled GPCR signalling in AgRP neurons triggers sustained increase in food intake. Nat.Commun. 8 10268 PMID: 26743492

Roth (2016) DREADDs for Neuroscientists. Neuron 89 683 PMID: 26889809

If you know of a relevant reference for Clozapine N-oxide, please let us know.

Keywords: Clozapine N-oxide, Clozapine N-oxide supplier, clozapine, metabolite, clozapine-N-oxide, DREADDs, DREADD, Ligands, muscarnic, receptors, designer, CNO, chemogenetics, Multidrug, Transporters, Non-selective, Muscarinics, 4936, Tocris Bioscience

139 Citations for Clozapine N-oxide

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Clozapine N-oxide include:

Tan et al (2016) Warm-Sensitive Neurons that Control Body Temperature. Cell 167 47 PMID: 27616062

Lim et al (2016) Neural activity promotes long-distance, target-specific regeneration of adult retinal axons. Nat Neurosci 19 1073 PMID: 27399843

Smith et al (2016) DREADDS: Use and application in behavioral neuroscience. Behav Neurosci 130 137 PMID: 26913540

Jason et al (2021) Loss of nigral excitation of cholinergic interneurons contributes to parkinsonian motor impairments. Neuron 109 1137-1149.e5 PMID: 33600762

Xiaolin et al (2021) Enhancing mask activity in dopaminergic neurons extends lifespan in flies. Aging Cell 20 e13493 PMID: 34626525

Alan C et al (2021) ARCGHR Neurons Regulate Muscle Glucose Uptake. Cells 10 PMID: 34063647

Richard et al (2021) Loss of cortical control over the descending pain modulatory system determines the development of the neuropathic pain state in rats. Elife 10 PMID: 33555256

Carlos et al (2021) A bidirectional corticoamygdala circuit for the encoding and retrieval of detailed reward memories. Elife 10 PMID: 34142660

David P et al (2021) NTS Prlh overcomes orexigenic stimuli and ameliorates dietary and genetic forms of obesity. Nat Commun 12 5175 PMID: 34462445

Sarah et al (2021) Lateral hypothalamic LEPR neurons drive appetitive but not consummatory behaviors. Cell Rep 36 109615 PMID: 34433027

Yavin et al (2021) A neural substrate of compulsive alcohol use. Sci Adv 7 PMID: 34407947

Luis et al (2021) Hunger-promoting AgRP neurons trigger an astrocyte-mediated feed-forward autoactivation loop in mice. J Clin Invest 131 PMID: 33848272

Wei et al (2021) Presymptomatic training mitigates functional deficits in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Nature 592 596-600 PMID: 33762729

Jonathan N et al (2021) tTARGIT AAVs mediate the sensitive and flexible manipulation of intersectional neuronal populations in mice. Elife 10 PMID: 33704065

Máté et al (2021) Neurochemically distinct populations of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis modulate innate fear response to weak threat evoked by predator odor stimuli. Neurobiol Stress 15 100415 PMID: 34765699

Peter et al (2021) Locomotor deficits in a mouse model of ALS are paralleled by loss of V1-interneuron connections onto fast motor neurons. Nat Commun 12 3251 PMID: 34059686

Jae-Hong et al (2021) Chemogenetic stimulation of the Gi pathway in astrocytes suppresses neuroinflammation. Pharmacol Res Perspect 9 e00822 PMID: 34676988

Naoya et al (2021) Thalamic input to motor cortex facilitates goal-directed action initiation. Curr Biol 31 4148-4155.e4 PMID: 34302741

Ryuichi et al (2021) Ventro-dorsal Hippocampal Pathway Gates Novelty-Induced Contextual Memory Formation. Curr Biol 31 25-38.e5 PMID: 33065009

Qiao et al (2021) PDX1LOW MAFALOW β-cells contribute to islet function and insulin release. Nat Commun 12 674 PMID: 33514698

Alfred J et al (2021) An excitatory lateral hypothalamic circuit orchestrating pain behaviors in mice. Elife 10 PMID: 34042586

Matthew I et al (2021) Corticothalamic gating of population auditory thalamocortical transmission in mouse. Elife 10 PMID: 34028350

Gerald W et al (2021) Gut-innervating TRPV1+ Neurons Drive Chronic Visceral Pain via Microglial P2Y12 Receptor. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 13 977-999 PMID: 34954381

Sarah A et al (2021) Top-down control of conditioned overconsumption is mediated by insular cortex Nos1 neurons. Cell Metab 33 1418-1432.e6 PMID: 33761312

Giovanni et al (2021) Specific and behaviorally consequential astrocyte Gq GPCR signaling attenuation in vivo with iβARK. Neuron 109 2256-2274.e9 PMID: 34139149

Lei et al (2021) Efferent feedback controls bilateral auditory spontaneous activity. Nat Commun 12 2449 PMID: 33907194

Sarah et al (2021) Hypothalamic control of interoceptive hunger. Curr Biol 31 3797-3809.e5 PMID: 34273280

Chris et al (2021) Chronic chemogenetic stimulation of the anterior olfactory nucleus reduces newborn neuron survival in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. J Neurochem 158 1186-1198 PMID: 34338310

Lei et al (2021) Projections from Infralimbic Cortex to Paraventricular Thalamus Mediate Fear Extinction Retrieval. Neurosci Bull 37 229-241 PMID: 33180308

Chiara et al (2021) A functional map for diverse forelimb actions within brainstem circuitry. Nature 590 445-450 PMID: 33408409

Taylor et al (2019) Chemogenetic Activation of Adrenocortical Gq Signaling Causes Hyperaldosteronism and Disrupts Functional Zonation. J Clin Invest 130 83 PMID: 31738186

Nam et al (2019) Activation of Astrocytic μ-Opioid Receptor Causes Conditioned Place Preference Cell Rep 28 1154 PMID: 31365861

McIver et al (2019) Maladaptive Downregulation of Autonomous Subthalamic Nucleus Activity following the Loss of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Cell Rep 28 992 PMID: 31340159

Ma et al (2019) Anterior cingulate cortex modulates the affective-motivative dimension of hyperosmolality-induced thirst. J Physiol 597 4851 PMID: 31390064

Ma et al (2019) Galanin Neurons Unite Sleep Homeostasis and α2-Adrenergic Sedation Curr Biol 29 3315 PMID: 31543455

R et al (2022) Mapping and targeted viral activation of pancreatic nerves in mice reveal their roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Nat Biomed Eng 6 1298-1316 PMID: 35835995

Danny G et al (2022) High fat diet blunts stress-induced hypophagia and activation of Glp1r dorsal lateral septum neurons in male but not in female mice. Mol Metab 64 101571 PMID: 35953023

Dora et al (2022) Median raphe region GABAergic neurons contribute to social interest in mouse. Life Sci 289 120223 PMID: 34896160

Rubén et al (2022) Hypothalamic pregnenolone mediates recognition memory in the context of metabolic disorders. Cell Metab 34 269-284.e9 PMID: 35108514

Tsung-Chih et al (2022) Distinct Contribution of Granular and Agranular Subdivisions of the Retrosplenial Cortex to Remote Contextual Fear Memory Retrieval. J Neurosci 42 877-893 PMID: 34876468

Shun-Fen et al (2022) High-fat diet induces depression-like phenotype via astrocyte-mediated hyperactivation of ventral hippocampal glutamatergic afferents to the nucleus accumbens. Mol Psychiatry 27 4372-4384 PMID: 36180573

Simon M et al (2022) Hypothalamic AgRP neurons exert top-down control on systemic TNF-α release during endotoxemia. Curr Biol 32 4699-4706.e4 PMID: 36182699

Erik et al (2022) TRAPing Ghrelin-Activated Circuits: A Novel Tool to Identify, Target and Control Hormone-Responsive Populations in TRAP2 Mice. Int J Mol Sci 23 PMID: 35008985

Carsten T et al (2022) Why do mice squeak? Toward a better understanding of defensive vocalization. iScience 25 104657 PMID: 35845167

George Z et al (2022) Control of mammalian locomotion by ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons. Cell 185 328-344.e26 PMID: 35063074

Ole et al (2022) Targeted activation of midbrain neurons restores locomotor function in mouse models of parkinsonism. Nat Commun 13 504 PMID: 35082287

Domokos et al (2022) Microglia modulate blood flow, neurovascular coupling, and hypoperfusion via purinergic actions. J Exp Med 219 PMID: 35201268

Tian et al (2022) Auts2 deletion involves in DG hypoplasia and social recognition deficit: The developmental and neural circuit mechanisms. Sci Adv 8 eabk1238 PMID: 35235353

Jing et al (2022) Parvalbumin Neurons in Zona Incerta Regulate Itch in Mice. Front Mol Neurosci 15 843754 PMID: 35299695

Sonia et al (2022) Dynamic interplay between thalamic activity and Cajal-Retzius cells regulates the wiring of cortical layer 1. Cell Rep 39 110667 PMID: 35417707

J Nicholas et al (2019) Natural and Drug Rewards Engage Distinct Pathways that Converge on Coordinated Hypothalamic and Reward Circuits. Neuron 103 891-908.e6 PMID: 31277924

J Silvio et al (2019) Illuminating G-Protein-Coupling Selectivity of GPCRs. Cell 177 1933-1947.e25 PMID: 31160049

J Silvio et al (2019) Gβγ signaling to the chemotactic effector P-REX1 and mammalian cell migration is directly regulated by Gαq and Gα13 proteins. J Biol Chem 294 531-546 PMID: 30446620

Yang et al (2019) Remotely controlled chemomagnetic modulation of targeted neural circuits. Nat Nanotechnol 14 967-973 PMID: 31427746

Giovanni et al (2019) Hyperactivity with Disrupted Attention by Activation of an Astrocyte Synaptogenic Cue. Cell 177 1280-1292.e20 PMID: 31031006

Shinae et al (2019) Distinct roles of striatal direct and indirect pathways in value-based decision making. Elife 8 PMID: 31310237

Laura et al (2019) Oxytocin Signaling in the Central Amygdala Modulates Emotion Discrimination in Mice. Curr Biol 29 1938-1953.e6 PMID: 31178317

Jeffrey S et al (2019) Recruitment of Spinoparabrachial Neurons by Dorsal Horn Calretinin Neurons. Cell Rep 28 1429-1438.e4 PMID: 31390558

Lu et al (2019) Adenosine triphosphate is co-secreted with glucagon-like peptide-1 to modulate intestinal enterocytes and afferent neurons. Nat.commun. 10 1029 PMID: 30833673

Jarovi et al (2019) Prefrontal Theta Oscillations Promote Selective Encoding of Behaviorally Relevant Events. Eneuro 5 PMID: 30693310

Benjamin et al (2020) Region-Specific Transcriptional Control of Astrocyte Function Oversees Local Circuit Activities. Neuron 106 992-1008.e9 PMID: 32320644

J Silvio et al (2020) Gαs directly drives PDZ-RhoGEF signaling to Cdc42. J Biol Chem 295 16920-16928 PMID: 33023908

Masahiro et al (2020) Developmental Phase Transitions in Spatial Organization of Spontaneous Activity in Postnatal Barrel Cortex Layer 4. J Neurosci 40 7637-7650 PMID: 32887743

Wei-Yang et al (2020) Chronic hM3Dq signaling in microglia ameliorates neuroinflammation in male mice. Brain Behav Immun 88 791-801 PMID: 32434046

Filippo et al (2020) Specific Hippocampal Interneurons Shape Consolidation of Recognition Memory. Cell Rep 32 108046 PMID: 32814049

Ivan et al (2020) Dissociable mesolimbic dopamine circuits control responding triggered by alcohol-predictive discrete cues and contexts. Nat Commun 11 3764 PMID: 32724058

Lique M et al (2020) Enhancement of Drug Seeking Following Drug Taking in a Sexual Context Requires Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity in Male Rats. Front Behav Neurosci 14 87 PMID: 32670029

Yu-Tien et al (2020) Defective memory engram reactivation underlies impaired fear memory recall in Fragile X syndrome. Elife 9 PMID: 33215988

Takeshi Y et al (2020) Distinct CCK-positive SFO neurons are involved in persistent or transient suppression of water intake. Nat Commun 11 5692 PMID: 33173030

Mark S et al (2020) A Sparse, Spatially Biased Subtype of Mature Granule Cell Dominates Recruitment in Hippocampal-Associated Behaviors. Cell Rep 31 107551 PMID: 32348756

Stewart A et al (2020) Modular, Circuit-Based Interventions Rescue Hippocampal-Dependent Social and Spatial Memory in a 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Mouse Model. Biol Psychiatry 88 710-718 PMID: 32682567

John Q et al (2020) Neuronal activity modulates alpha-synuclein aggregation and spreading in organotypic brain slice cultures and in vivo. Acta Neuropathol 140 831-849 PMID: 33021680

Peng et al (2020) Brain Circuit of Claustrophobia-like Behavior in Mice Identified by Upstream Tracing of Sighing. Cell Rep 31 107779 PMID: 32553161

Weiner et al (2019) Cholinergic neural activity directs retinal layer-specific angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation. Nat Commun 10 2477 PMID: 31171770

Silverman et al (2023) Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1-expressing vagus nerve fibers mediate IL-1 beta induced hypothermia and reflex anti-inflammatory responses Mol Med 29 4 PMID: 36650454

Jasper et al (2020) Value-guided remapping of sensory cortex by lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Nature 585 245-250 PMID: 32884146

Giovanni et al (2020) Context-Specific Striatal Astrocyte Molecular Responses Are Phenotypically Exploitable. Neuron 108 1146-1162.e10 PMID: 33086039

Juan et al (2020) Gabapentinoid treatment promotes corticospinal plasticity and regeneration following murine spinal cord injury. J Clin Invest 130 345-358 PMID: 31793909

Hiroki et al (2020) Probabilistic, spinally-gated control of bladder pressure and autonomous micturition by Barrington's nucleus CRH neurons. Elife 9 PMID: 32347794

Se-Young et al (2020) Dynamic Changes in the Bridging Collaterals of the Basal Ganglia Circuitry Control Stress-Related Behaviors in Mice. Mol Cells 43 360-372 PMID: 31940718

Martin G et al (2020) Leptin receptor-expressing nucleus tractus solitarius neurons suppress food intake independently of GLP1 in mice. JCI Insight 5 PMID: 32182221

Martin G et al (2020) Calcitonin Receptor Neurons in the Mouse Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Control Energy Balance via the Non-aversive Suppression of Feeding. Cell Metab 31 301-312.e5 PMID: 31955990

Wen-Chin et al (2020) Social Behavior Is Modulated by Valence-Encoding mPFC-Amygdala Sub-circuitry. Cell Rep 32 107899 PMID: 32668253

Lisa E et al (2020) A limbic circuit selectively links active escape to food suppression. Elife 9 PMID: 32894221

J Silvio et al (2020) Activation of G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Gαi Signaling Increases Keratinocyte Proliferation and Reduces Differentiation, Leading to Epidermal Hyperplasia. J Invest Dermatol 140 1195-1203.e3 PMID: 31707029

Nasrallah et al (2019) Routing Hippocampal Information Flow through Parvalbumin Interneuron Plasticity in Area CA2. Cell Rep 27 86 PMID: 30943417

Yuan and Grutzendler (2016) Attenuation of β-Amyloid Deposition and Neurotoxicity by Chemogenetic Modulation of Neural Activity. J Neurosci 36 632 PMID: 26758850

Amita et al (2016) Changes in Female Drosophila Sleep following Mating Are Mediated by SPSN-SAG Neurons. J Biol Rhythms 31 551-567 PMID: 27658900

Gert et al (2023) Presynaptic Gq-coupled receptors drive biphasic dopamine transporter trafficking that modulates dopamine clearance and motor function. J Biol Chem 299 102900 PMID: 36640864

Haruo et al (2023) Serotonergic neurons control cortical neuronal intracellular energy dynamics by modulating astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. iScience 26 105830 PMID: 36713262

Soo-Jin et al (2023) DDC-Promoter-Driven Chemogenetic Activation of SNpc Dopaminergic Neurons Alleviates Parkinsonian Motor Symptoms. Int J Mol Sci 24 PMID: 36768816

Jinxin et al (2023) Arc-Expressing Accessory Olfactory Bulb Interneurons Support Chemosensory Social Behavioral Plasticity. J Neurosci 43 1178-1190 PMID: 36623874

Paul C et al (2023) Norepinephrine links astrocytic activity to regulation of cortical state. Nat Neurosci 26 579-593 PMID: 36997759

Bong-June et al (2023) Orexinergic neurons modulate stress coping responses in mice. Front Mol Neurosci 16 1140672 PMID: 37008783

Han et al (2023) Denervated mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons express homeostatic synaptic plasticity following entorhinal cortex lesion. Front Mol Neurosci 16 1148219 PMID: 37122623

Dorst et al (2020) Polysynaptic inhibition between striatal cholinergic interneurons shapes their network activity patterns in a dopamine-dependent manner. Nat Commun 11 5113 PMID: 33037215

Borodovitsyna et al (2020) Anatomically and functionally distinct locus coeruleus efferents mediate opposing effects on anxiety-like behavior Neurobiology of Stress 13 PMID: 33344735

Pati et al (2020) Chronic postnatal chemogenetic activation of forebrain excitatory neurons evokes persistent changes in mood behavior ELife 9 PMID: 32955432

Gizowski & Bourque et al (2020) Sodium regulates clock time and output via an excitatory GABAergic pathway. Nature

Delcourte et al (2020) Astroglia in lateral habenula is essential for antidepressant efficacy of light BioRXiv - not yet peer reviewed

Cregg et al (2020) Brainstem neurons that command mammalian locomotor asymmetries. Nat Neurosci 23 730 PMID: 32393896

Hart et al (2020) Chemogenetic Modulation and Single-Photon Calcium Imaging in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Reveal a Mechanism for Effort-Based Decisions J Neurosci 40 5628 PMID: 32527984

Deffains et al (2020) In vivo electrophysiological validation of DREADD-based inhibition of pallidal neurons in the non-human primate. Eur J Neurosci 53 2192 PMID: 32306446

Morelli et al (2021) Identification of a population of peripheral sensory neurons that regulates blood pressure. Cell Rep 35 PMID: 34077727

Pina and Cunningham (2016) Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 137 83 PMID: 27866960

D'Agostino et al (2016) Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit. PLoS Biol 5 PMID: 26974347

Bruzsik et al (2021) Somatostatin neurons of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis enhance associative fear memory consolidation in mice. J Neurosci 41 1982 PMID: 33468566

Maldonado et al (2021) Oxytocin shapes spontaneous activity patterns in the developing visual cortex by activating somatostatin interneurons. Curr Biol 31 322 PMID: 33157028

Meira et al (2018) A hippocampal circuit linking dorsal CA2 to ventral CA1 critical for social memory dynamics. Nat.Commun. 9 4163 PMID: 30301899

Rapanelli (2017) Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 6599 PMID: 28584117

Attinger (2017) Visuomotor coupling shapes the functional development of mouse visual cortex. Cell 169 1291 PMID: 28602353

Gelegen et al (2018) Excitatory Pathways from the Lateral Habenula Enable Propofol-Induced Sedation. Curr Biol 28 580 PMID: 29398217

Harding et al (2018) A Neuronal Hub Binding Sleep Initiation and Body Cooling in Response to a Warm External Stimulus. Curr Biol 28 2263 PMID: 30017485

Heiss et al (2018) Parallel Arousal Pathways in the Lateral Hypothalamus. Eneuro 5 PMID: 30225361

Berglind et al (2018) Dynamic interaction of local and transhemispheric networks is necessary for progressive intensification of hippocampal seizures. Sci Rep 8 5669 PMID: 29618778

Hardy et al (2018) The role of calretinin-expressing granule cells in olfactory bulb functions and odor behavior. Sci Rep 8 9385 PMID: 29925844

Terburg et al (2018) The Basolateral Amygdala Is Essential for Rapid Escape: A Human and Rodent Study. Cell 175 723 PMID: 30340041

Amat (2017) Using c-kit to genetically target cerebellar molecular layer interneurons in adult mice. PLoS One 12 e0179347 PMID: 28658323

Christopher J et al (2018) Reducing Astrocyte Calcium Signaling In Vivo Alters Striatal Microcircuits and Causes Repetitive Behavior. Neuron 99 1170-1187.e9 PMID: 30174118

Cornelia et al (2017) Orexin-driven GAD65 network of the lateral hypothalamus sets physical activity in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114 4525-4530 PMID: 28396414

Mark D et al (2017) Loss of Hyperdirect Pathway Cortico-Subthalamic Inputs Following Degeneration of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons. Neuron 95 1306-1318.e5 PMID: 28910619

Nathan J et al (2017) The Anterior Insular Cortex?Central Amygdala Glutamatergic Pathway Is Critical to Relapse after Contingency Management. Neuron 96 414-427.e8 PMID: 29024664

Martin et al (2017) CaMKIIα Expression Defines Two Functionally Distinct Populations of Granule Cells Involved in Different Types of Odor Behavior. Curr Biol 27 3315-3329.e6 PMID: 29107547

Zhang et al (2017) Inhibiting medial septal cholinergic neurons with DREADD alleviated anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Neurosci Letts 18 139 PMID: 27939976

Roman et al (2017) A tale of two circuits: CCKNTS neuron stimulation controls appetite and induces opposing motivational states by projections to distinct brain regions. Neuroscience 358 316 PMID: 28684275

Pina and Cunningham et al (2017) Ethanol-seeking behavior is expressed directly through an extended amygdala to midbrain neural circuit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 137 83 PMID: 27866960

Ge et al (2017) Glutamatergic projections from the entorhinal cortex to dorsal dentate gyrus mediate context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 42 1860 PMID: 28106041

Schwartz et al (2017) Cortico-accumbens regulation of approach-avoidance behavior Is modified by experience and chronic pain. Cell Rep 19 1522 PMID: 28538173

Adekunbi et al (2018) Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice. J Neuroendocrinol 30 e12572 PMID: 29356147

Jiang et al (2018) Cholinergic neurons in medial septum maintain anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic inflammatory pain. Neurosci Letts 671 7 PMID: 29410218

Aggarwal et al (2018) Medial Amygdala Kiss1 Neurons Mediate Female Pheromone Stimulation of Luteinizing Hormone in Male Mice. Neuroendocrinology 108 172 PMID: 30537700

Leroy et al (2018) A circuit from hippocampal CA2 to lateral septum disinhibits social aggression. Nature 564 213 PMID: 30518859

Glasgow et al (2018) Activity-Dependent Netrin-1 Secretion Drives Synaptic Insertion of GluA1-Containing AMPA Receptors in the Hippocampus. Cell Rep 25 168 PMID: 30282026

Adamsky et al (2018) Astrocytic Activation Generates De Novo Neuronal Potentiation and Memory Enhancement. Cell 174 59 PMID: 29804835

Cembrowski et al (2018) Dissociable Structural and Functional Hippocampal Outputs via Distinct Subiculum Cell Classes. Cell 173 1280 PMID: 29681453

Alhadeff et al (2018) A Neural Circuit for the Suppression of Pain by a Competing Need State. Cell 173 140 PMID: 29570993

Chai et al (2017) Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence. Neuron 95 531 PMID: 28712653

Francois et al (2017) A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins. Neuron 93 822 PMID: 28162807

Heinsbroek et al (2017) Loss of Plasticity in the D2-Accumbens Pallidal Pathway Promotes Cocaine Seeking. J Neurosci 37 757 PMID: 28123013

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Good product.
By Anonymous on 06/15/2020
Assay Type: In Vivo
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: neuron

1 mg/kg

PMID: 31340159 Reference
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Highly soluble and stable.
By Anonymous on 01/04/2018
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Mouse

Soluble in 0.9% saline. Perfused in brain slice experiment with patch clamp study.

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GPCR Efficacy and Biased Agonism Poster

GPCR Efficacy and Biased Agonism Poster

GPCRs can interact with multiple distinct transducers or regulatory proteins and these can be preferentially engaged in an agonist-specific manner giving rise to biased agonism. This poster discusses cutting edge GPCR signaling pharmacology and highlights therapeutic applications of biased agonism.