Thymidylate Synthetase

Thymidylate Synthetase (TS) EC 2.1.1.45 is a highly conserved bifunctional enzyme responsible for the reductive methylation of dUMP to dTMP, required for DNA synthesis. TS also functions as a RNA binding protein and its protein levels are linked to chemoresistance in cancer.

Products
Background
Literature (4)
Pathways (2)
Gene Data

Thymidylate Synthetase Inhibitors

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
3257 5-Fluorouracil
Thymidylate synthetase inhibitor
6185 Pemetrexed
Thymidylate synthetase inhibitor, also inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, GARFT and AICART

Related Targets

Thymidylate Synthetase (TS) EC 2.1.1.45 is a highly conserved bifunctional enzyme, that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and dihydrofolate. This is an essential metabolic reaction, producing dTMP required for DNA synthesis and dihydrofolate, required for production of purines and pyrimidines and therefore DNA and RNA.

TS also functions as a RNA binding protein, able to regulate its own protein levels through translational autoregulatory feedback mechanisms. It also binds to other RNAs including p35 and myc family transcription factors, leading to a regulatory role in cell cycle and apoptosis.

Inhibition of TS is a mechanism of action of some cytotoxic drugs for cancer treatment including fluoropyrimidines. Inhibition causes an imbalance in deoxynucleotides, leading to increased levels of dUMP causing DNA damage and triggering cell death through p53 and apoptosis. TS activity and/or protein expression correlates with response to fluoropyrimidines: cancer cell lines that express high levels of TS show increased resistance to the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of fluoropyrimidines.

External sources of pharmacological information for Thymidylate Synthetase :

    Literature for Thymidylate Synthetase

    Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Thymidylate Synthetase to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

    *Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.


    Cancer Metabolism Research Product Guide

    Cancer Metabolism Research Product Guide

    This product guide reviews some of the main areas in cancer metabolism research and lists around 150 products that can be used to investigate metabolic pathways in cancer including:

    Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Research Product Guide

    Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Research Product Guide

    This product guide provides a review of the cell cycle and DNA damage research area and lists over 170 products, including research tools for:

    • Cell Cycle and Mitosis
    • DNA Damage Repair
    • Targeted Protein Degradation
    • Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway
    • Chemotherapy Targets
    Cancer Metabolism Poster

    Cancer Metabolism Poster

    This poster summarizes the main metabolic pathways in cancer cells and highlights potential targets for cancer therapeutics. Genetic changes and epigenetic modifications in cancer cells alter the regulation of cellular metabolic pathways providing potential cancer therapeutic targets.

    Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair Poster

    Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair Poster

    In normal cells, each stage of the cell cycle is tightly regulated, however in cancer cells many genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle are mutated or over expressed. This poster summarizes the stages of the cell cycle and DNA repair. It also highlights strategies for enhancing replicative stress in cancer cells to force mitotic catastrophe and cell death.

    Pathways for Thymidylate Synthetase

    Apoptosis Signaling Pathway

    Apoptosis Signaling Pathway

    Apoptosis is a physiological process for cell death that is critical during aging and development. It may also be referred to as cell 'suicide'. Apoptosis can be triggered by events both inside and outside of the cell.
    p53 Signaling Pathway

    p53 Signaling Pathway

    p53 signaling plays an important role in the co-ordination of the cellular response different types of stress such as DNA damage and hypoxia. The downstream signals lead to apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest.

    Thymidylate Synthetase Gene Data

    Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
    TYMS Human TYMS NM_001071 P04818
    Mouse Tyms NM_021288 P07607
    Rat Tyms NM_019179 NP_062052