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Biological Activity for Xanomeline oxalate
Xanomeline oxalate is a functionally biased muscarinic M4 receptor agonist (EC50 values are 14.1 nM, 30.9 nM, 1700 nM, 1800 nM and 8500 nM at M4, M1, M2, M5 and M3 receptors respectively. Binds with similar affinity to all muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (pKi 6.7-7.7) but displays higher efficacy and efficacy-driven selectivity at M4 receptors. Displays a complex pharmacological profile: reversible and wash-resistant binding, resulting in full agonist activity at M1; delayed wash-resistant partial agonist activity at M2; and delayed wash-resistant full agonist activity at M4. Exhibits antipsychotic activity, and improves cognitive deficits and behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
Compound Libraries for Xanomeline oxalate
Technical Data for Xanomeline oxalate
|Storage||Store at +4°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Xanomeline oxalate
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
|water||3.71||10 with gentle warming|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Xanomeline oxalate
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 371.46. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||2.69 mL||13.46 mL||26.92 mL|
|5 mM||0.54 mL||2.69 mL||5.38 mL|
|10 mM||0.27 mL||1.35 mL||2.69 mL|
|50 mM||0.05 mL||0.27 mL||0.54 mL|
Product Datasheets for Xanomeline oxalate
References for Xanomeline oxalate
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Jakubik et al (2008) Importance and prospects for design of selective muscarinic agonists. Physiol.Res. 57 S39 PMID: 18481916
Heinrich et al (2009) Pharmacological comparison of muscarinic ligands: historical versus more recent muscarinic M1-preferring receptor agonists. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 605 53 PMID: 19168056
Stanhope et al (2001) The muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline has an antipsychotic-like profile in the rat. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 299 782 PMID: 11602695
Powers et al (2023) Structural basis of efficacy-driven ligand selectivity at GPCRs. Nat.Chem.Biol. 19 805 PMID: 36782010
McDonald et al (2022) Biased profile of xanomeline at the recombinant human M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. ACS Chem.Neurosci. 13 1206 PMID: 35380782
If you know of a relevant reference for Xanomeline oxalate, please let us know.
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Keywords: Xanomeline oxalate, Xanomeline oxalate supplier, Functionally, biased, M1, agonists, agonist, Muscarinic, Receptors, Acetylcholine, ACh, machr, M4, alzheimers, schizophrenia, antipsychotic, 3569, Tocris Bioscience
2 Citations for Xanomeline oxalate
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Xanomeline oxalate include:
Tian et al (2016) STEP activation by Gαq coupled GPCRs opposes Src regulation of NMDA receptors containing the GluN2A subunit Scientific Reports 6 36684 PMID: 27857196
Pasko et al (2020) Muscarinic M1 Receptors Modulate Working Memory Performance and Activity via KCNQ Potassium Channels in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex. Neuron 106 649-661.e4 PMID: 32197063
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Literature in this Area
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Learning & Memory Poster
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.