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Biological Activity for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
(R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride is a prototypical dopamine agonist (pKi values are 6.43, 7.08, 7.59, 8.36 and 7.83 for human recombinant D1, D2L, D3, D4 and D5 receptors respectively). Produces biphasic effects on locomotor activity, and displays anti-Parkinsonian and neuroprotective actions following systemic administration in vivo.
Technical Data for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 303.79. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.29 mL||16.46 mL||32.92 mL|
|5 mM||0.66 mL||3.29 mL||6.58 mL|
|10 mM||0.33 mL||1.65 mL||3.29 mL|
|50 mM||0.07 mL||0.33 mL||0.66 mL|
Product Datasheets for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
References for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Liu et al (1996) Low doses of apomor. suppress operant motor performance in rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 53 335 PMID: 8808141
Grunblatt et al (1999) Apomorphine protects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Mov.Disord. 14 612 PMID: 10435498
Millan et al (2002) Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the binding profiles of 14 drugs at 21 native and cloned human receptor subtypes. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 303 791 PMID: 12388666
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Keywords: (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride, (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride supplier, Dopamine, agonists, non-subtype-selective, D2, D3, D4, Non-Selective, Receptors, D1, D5, dopaminergic, Non-selective, and, 2073, Tocris Bioscience
1 Citation for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for (R)-(-)-Apomorphine hydrochloride include:
Huang (2018) DA D1 Receptors Contribute Critically to the Apomorphine-Induced Inhibition of Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 59 2623 PMID: 29847669
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Dopamine Receptors Scientific Review
Written by Phillip Strange and revised by Kim Neve in 2013, this review summarizes the history of the dopamine receptors and provides an overview of individual receptor subtype properties, their distribution and identifies ligands which act at each receptor subtype. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Parkinson's Disease Poster
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.