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Biological Activity for Palmitoylethanolamide
Palmitoylethanolamide is an endogenous lipid that acts as a selective GPR55 agonist (EC50 values are 4, 19 800 and > 30 000 nM at GPR55, CB2 and CB1 receptors respectively). Substrate for fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and PEA-preferring acid amidase (PAA) and exhibits antinociceptive and anticonvulsant in vivo. Directly activates PPARα (EC50 = 3 μM) producing robust anti-inflammatory actions.
Technical Data for Palmitoylethanolamide
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Palmitoylethanolamide
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Palmitoylethanolamide
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 299.5. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.25 mM||13.36 mL||66.78 mL||133.56 mL|
|1.25 mM||2.67 mL||13.36 mL||26.71 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.34 mL||6.68 mL||13.36 mL|
|12.5 mM||0.27 mL||1.34 mL||2.67 mL|
Product Datasheets for Palmitoylethanolamide
References for Palmitoylethanolamide
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Lambert et al (2001) Anticonvulsant activity of N-palmitoylethanolamide, a putative endocannabinoid, in mice. Epilepsia 42 321 PMID: 11442148
Lambert et al (2002) The palmitoylethanolamide family: a new class of anti-inflammatory agents? Curr.Med.Chem. 9 663 PMID: 11945130
Lo Verme et al (2005) The search for the palmitoylethanolamide receptor. Life Sci. 77 1685 PMID: 15963531
Re et al (2005) Palmitoylethanolamide, endocannabinoids and related cannabimimetic compounds in protection against tissue inflammation and pain: potential use in companion animals. Vet.J. 173 21 PMID: 16324856
Ryberg et al (2007) The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br.J.Pharmacol. 152 1092 PMID: 17876302
If you know of a relevant reference for Palmitoylethanolamide, please let us know.
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Keywords: Palmitoylethanolamide, Palmitoylethanolamide supplier, Endogenous, lipid, PPARα, PPARalpha, agonists, activity, Selective, GPR55, FAAH, PAA, PEA-preferring, acid, amidase, Peroxisome, Proliferator-activating, Receptors, PPAR, Cannabinoid, Anandamide, Fatty, Acid, Amide, Hydrolases, PEA, Hydrolase, (FAAH), Other, Cannabinoids, 0879, Tocris Bioscience
10 Citations for Palmitoylethanolamide
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Palmitoylethanolamide include:
Nieri et al (2006) Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by cannabinoid molecules in HK-2 renal cells. Br J Pharmacol 148 682 PMID: 16715117
Musella (2017) A novel crosstalk within the endocannabinoid system controls GABA transmission in the striatum. Sci Rep 7 7363 PMID: 28779174
Redlich et al (2014) Palmitoylethanolamide stimulates phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by macrophages and increases the resistance of mice against infections. PLoS One 11 108 PMID: 24927796
Maingret et al (2001) The endocannabinoid anandamide is a direct and selective blocker of the background K(+) channel TASK-1. EMBO J 20 47 PMID: 11226154
Chataigneau et al (1998) Cannabinoid CB1 receptor and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in guinea-pig carotid, rat mesenteric and porcine coronary arteries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 123 968 PMID: 9535027
Ho et al (2008) 'Entourage' effects of N-palmitoylethanolamide and N-oleoylethanolamide on vasorelaxation to anandamide occur through TRPV1 receptors. Br J Pharmacol 155 837 PMID: 18695637
Melis et al (2008) Endogenous fatty acid ethanolamides suppress nicotine-induced activation of mesolimbic DA neurons through nuclear receptors. J Neurosci 28 13985 PMID: 19091987
Scuderi et al (2012) Palmitoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotective effects in mixed neuroglial cultures and organotypic hippocampal slices via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Br J Pharmacol 9 49 PMID: 22405189
Raso et al (2015) Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system. Int J Mol Sci 10 e0123602 PMID: 25951330
Lin et al (2015) Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits glutamate release in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. J Neuroinflammation 16 5555 PMID: 25768340
Do you know of a great paper that uses Palmitoylethanolamide from Tocris? Please let us know.
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.