MNI-caged glutamate that rapidly and efficiently releases glutamate (Cat. No. 0218) when photolysed (300 - 380 nm excitation). Water-soluble, highly resistant to hydrolysis, stable at neutral pH, and pharmacologically inactive at neuronal glutamate receptors (up to mM concentrations). 2.5-fold more efficient at releasing L-glutamate than NI-caged L-glutamate.
View more information regarding MNI-caged-L-glutamate.
Sold under license from the Medical Research Council
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
|water||16.16||50mM with gentle warming|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 323.3. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.09 mL||15.47 mL||30.93 mL|
|5 mM||0.62 mL||3.09 mL||6.19 mL|
|10 mM||0.31 mL||1.55 mL||3.09 mL|
|50 mM||0.06 mL||0.31 mL||0.62 mL|
References are publications that support the products' biological activity.
Canepari et al (2001) Photochemical and pharmacological evaluation of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-amino acids as novel, fast caged neurotransmitters. J.Neurosci.Methods 112 29 PMID: 11640955
Maier et al (2005) Comparative analysis of inhibitory effects of caged ligands for the NMDA receptor. J.Neurosci.Methods 142 1 PMID: 15652611
Matsuzaki et al (2001) Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Nat.Neurosci. 4 1086 PMID: 11687814
Palma-Cerda et al (2012) New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups. Neuropharmacology. 63 624 PMID: 22609535
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42 Citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate include:
Goddard et al (2014) Spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition within a stimulus selection network in the avian midbrain. PLoS One 9 e85865 PMID: 24465755
Ikrar et al (2014) Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus. Front Neural Circuits 7 204 PMID: 24421758
Kamijo et al (2014) Input integration around the dendritic branches in hippocampal dentate granule cells. Cogn Neurodyn 8 267 PMID: 25009669
Dubos et al (2012) Alteration of synaptic network dynamics by the intellectual disability protein PAK3. J Neurosci 32 519 PMID: 22238087
Earls et al (2010) Dysregulation of presynaptic calcium and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome. J Biol Chem 30 15843 PMID: 21106823
Tao et al (2006) Neutralization of the aspartic acid residue Asp-367, but not Asp-454, inhibits binding of Na+ to the glutamate-free form and cycling of the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Biol Chem 281 10263 PMID: 16478724
Araya et al (2006) Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 18799 PMID: 17132736
El-Kouhen et al (2006) Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 149 761 PMID: 17016515
Hammond et al (2010) Discovery of a Novel Chemical Class of mGlu(5) Allosteric Ligands with Distinct Modes of Pharmacology. ACS Chem Neurosci 1 702 PMID: 20981342
Tao et al (2010) Mechanism of cation binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1 probed with mutation of the conserved amino acid residue Thr101. J Biol Chem 285 17725 PMID: 20378543
Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040
Huang et al (2004) Astrocyte glutamate transporters regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of hippocampal interneurons. J Neurosci 24 4551 PMID: 15140926
Zhang et al (2016) Stereotyped initiation of retinal waves by bipolar cells via presynaptic NMDA autoreceptors. Nat.Commun. 7 12650 PMID: 27586999
Nygaard et al (2015) Melanoma brain colonization involves the emergence of a brain-adaptive phenotype. J Neurosci 1 82 PMID: 25593989
Harnett et al (2015) Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons. PLoS One 35 1024 PMID: 25609619
Erlandson et al (2015) The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation. Front Cell Neurosci 10 e0132008 PMID: 26134668
Ferreira et al (2015) Highly differentiated cellular and circuit properties of infralimbic pyramidal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray and amygdala. Nat Commun 9 161 PMID: 25972785
Laprell et al (2015) Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch. PLoS One 6 8076 PMID: 26311290
Otmakhov et al (2015) Fast Decay of CaMKII FRET Sensor Signal in Spines after LTP Induction Is Not Due to Its Dephosphorylation. Front Cell Neurosci 10 e0130457 PMID: 26086939
Yang et al (2015) The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels. J Neurosci 9 469 PMID: 26696828
Callender et al (2012) Mechanism of inhibition of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 by the conformationally constrained glutamate analogue (+)-HIP-B. Biochemistry 51 5486 PMID: 22703277
Ferrario et al (2012) Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration alters NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry in nucleus accumbens dendritic spines. PLoS One 7 e40898 PMID: 22870207
Zhang et al (2012) Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 32 1183 PMID: 22279204
Nikolenko et al (2009) SLM Microscopy: Scanless Two-Photon Imaging and Photostimulation with Spatial Light Modulators. Front Neural Circuits 2 5 PMID: 19129923
Holbro et al (2009) Differential distribution of endoplasmic reticulum controls metabotropic signaling and plasticity at hippocampal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 15055 PMID: 19706463
Brill and Huguenard (2009) Robust short-latency perisomatic inhibition onto neocortical pyramidal cells detected by laser-scanning photostimulation. J Neurosci 29 7413 PMID: 19515909
Apostolides and Trussell (2013) Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse. J Neurosci 33 4768 PMID: 23486948
Wood et al (2009) Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in an RNA interference model of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 29 12440 PMID: 19812320
Berlin et al (2016) A family of photoswitchable NMDA receptors. Elife 5 PMID: 26929991
Abbas et al (2013) Directional summation in non-direction selective retinal ganglion cells. PLoS Comput Biol 9 e1002969 PMID: 23516351
Li et al (2013) Molecular layer perforant path-associated cells contribute to feed-forward inhibition in the adult dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 9106 PMID: 23671081
Turesson et al (2013) Intrinsic connections in the anterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurophysiol 109 2438 PMID: 23446692
Go et al (2013) Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters. Front Cell Neurosci 7 231 PMID: 24348330
Davison and Ehlers (2011) Neural circuit mechanisms for pattern detection and feature combination in olfactory cortex. Neuron 70 82 PMID: 21482358
Vandenberg et al (2011) Water and urea permeation pathways of the human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1. Biochem J 439 333 PMID: 21732909
Doretto et al (2011) Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development. PLoS One 6 e19849 PMID: 21589880
Brill and Huguenard (2008) Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit. J Reprod Dev 28 13918 PMID: 19091980
Stephany et al (2014) Plasticity of binocularity and visual acuity are differentially limited by nogo receptor. J Neurosci 34 11631 PMID: 25164659
Nothmann et al (2011) Hetero-oligomerization of neuronal glutamate transporters. J Neurosci 286 3935 PMID: 21127051
Biase et al (2011) NMDA receptor signaling in oligodendrocyte progenitors is not required for oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Oncoscience 31 12650 PMID: 21880926
Shankar et al (2007) Natural oligomers of the Alzheimer amyloid-beta protein induce reversible synapse loss by modulating an NMDA-type glutamate receptor-dependent signaling pathway. J Neurosci 27 2866 PMID: 17360908
Araya et al (2006) The spine neck filters membrane potentials. J Neurosci 103 17961 PMID: 17093040
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Reviews for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
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We buy this product in bulk for use in all of our uncaging experiments. High frequency uncaging next to dendritic spine head induces reliable spine growth, indicative of synapse strengthening.
We resuspend in ACSF and found that we can freeze and reuse the solution. However, when suspended in HBSS it is no longer effective after freezing.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.
Learning & Memory Poster
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.