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Biological Activity for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
MNI-caged-L-glutamate is a form of glutamate linked to a photo-protecting group, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI); it rapidly and efficiently releases L-glutamate (Cat. No. 0218) by photolysis (300 - 380 nm excitation) with a quantum yield in the 0.065-0.085 range. It is also suitable for use with two-photon uncaging microscopy (cross-section of 0.06 GM at 730 nm). MNI-caged-L-glutamate is optically compatible with other chromophores used for fluorescence imaging, such as GFP, YFP and most Ca2+ dyes. MNI-caged-L-glutamate is 2.5-fold more efficient at releasing L-glutamate than NI-caged L-glutamate. MNI-caged-L-glutamate is water-soluble, stable at neutral pH, highly resistant to hydrolysis and pharmacologically inactive at neuronal glutamate receptors and transporters (up to mM concentrations). MNI-caged-L-glutamate can be used for in situ studies of fast synaptic glutamate receptors.
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Sold under license from the Medical Research Council
Technical Data for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 323.3. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||6.19 mL||30.93 mL||61.86 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.24 mL||6.19 mL||12.37 mL|
|5 mM||0.62 mL||3.09 mL||6.19 mL|
|25 mM||0.12 mL||0.62 mL||1.24 mL|
Product Datasheets for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
References for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Canepari et al (2001) Photochemical and pharmacological evaluation of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-amino acids as novel, fast caged neurotransmitters. J.Neurosci.Methods 112 29 PMID: 11640955
Maier et al (2005) Comparative analysis of inhibitory effects of caged ligands for the NMDA receptor. J.Neurosci.Methods 142 1 PMID: 15652611
Matsuzaki et al (2001) Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Nat.Neurosci. 4 1086 PMID: 11687814
Papageorgiou and Corrie (2000) Effects of aromatic substitutions on the photocleavage of 1-acyl-7-nitroindolines. Tetrahedron 56 8197
Palma-Cerda et al (2012) New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups. Neuropharmacology. 63 624 PMID: 22609535
Ellis-Davies (2019) Two-Photon Uncaging of Glutamate Front Synaptic Neurosci. 10 48 PMID: 30687075
If you know of a relevant reference for MNI-caged-L-glutamate, please let us know.
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Keywords: MNI-caged-L-glutamate, MNI-caged-L-glutamate supplier, Stable, photoreleaser, L-glutamate, Caged, Compounds, Glutamate, mGlur, Receptors, Metabotropic, Non-Selective, iGlur, Ionotropic, agonists, MNI, glutamate, MNI-Glutamate, 4-Methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-caged-L-glutamate, Miscellaneous, Non-selective, mGlu, 1490, Tocris Bioscience
61 Citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate include:
Berlin et al (2016) A family of photoswitchable NMDA receptors. Elife 5 PMID: 26929991
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Otmakhov et al (2015) Fast Decay of CaMKII FRET Sensor Signal in Spines after LTP Induction Is Not Due to Its Dephosphorylation. Front Cell Neurosci 10 e0130457 PMID: 26086939
Yang et al (2015) The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels. J Neurosci 9 469 PMID: 26696828
Davison and Ehlers (2011) Neural circuit mechanisms for pattern detection and feature combination in olfactory cortex. Neuron 70 82 PMID: 21482358
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Doretto et al (2011) Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development. PLoS One 6 e19849 PMID: 21589880
Turesson et al (2013) Intrinsic connections in the anterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurophysiol 109 2438 PMID: 23446692
Go et al (2013) Four-dimensional multi-site photolysis of caged neurotransmitters. Front Cell Neurosci 7 231 PMID: 24348330
Abbas et al (2013) Directional summation in non-direction selective retinal ganglion cells. PLoS Comput Biol 9 e1002969 PMID: 23516351
Li et al (2013) Molecular layer perforant path-associated cells contribute to feed-forward inhibition in the adult dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 9106 PMID: 23671081
Xiao et al (2018) OXT functions as a spatiotemporal filter for excitatory synaptic inputs to VTA DA neurons. Elife 7 PMID: 29676731
Chopek et al (2018) Sub-populations of Spinal V3 Interneurons Form Focal Modules of Layered Pre-motor Microcircuits. Cell Rep 25 146 PMID: 30282024
Hangen et al (2018) Neuronal Activity and Intracellular Calcium Levels Regulate Intracellular Transport of Newly Synthesized AMPAR. Cell Rep 24 1001 PMID: 30044968
Wood et al (2009) Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in an RNA interference model of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 29 12440 PMID: 19812320
Apostolides and Trussell (2013) Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse. J Neurosci 33 4768 PMID: 23486948
Lu et al (2017) Slow AMPAR Synaptic Transmission Is Determined by Stargazin and Glutamate Transporters. Neuron 96 73 PMID: 28919175
Chang et al (2017) CaMKII Autophosphorylation Is Necessary for Optimal Integration of Ca2+ Signals during LTP Induction, but Not Maintenance. Neuron 94 800 PMID: 28521133
Goo et al (2017) Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines. J Cell Biol 216 2499 PMID: 28630145
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Zhang et al (2016) Stereotyped initiation of retinal waves by bipolar cells via presynaptic NMDA autoreceptors. Nat.Commun. 7 12650 PMID: 27586999
Brill and Huguenard (2009) Robust short-latency perisomatic inhibition onto neocortical pyramidal cells detected by laser-scanning photostimulation. J Neurosci 29 7413 PMID: 19515909
Nikolenko et al (2009) SLM Microscopy: Scanless Two-Photon Imaging and Photostimulation with Spatial Light Modulators. Front Neural Circuits 2 5 PMID: 19129923
Holbro et al (2009) Differential distribution of endoplasmic reticulum controls metabotropic signaling and plasticity at hippocampal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 15055 PMID: 19706463
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Zhang et al (2012) Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 32 1183 PMID: 22279204
Callender et al (2012) Mechanism of inhibition of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 by the conformationally constrained glutamate analogue (+)-HIP-B. Biochemistry 51 5486 PMID: 22703277
Ferrario et al (2012) Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration alters NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry in nucleus accumbens dendritic spines. PLoS One 7 e40898 PMID: 22870207
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Tao et al (2010) Mechanism of cation binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1 probed with mutation of the conserved amino acid residue Thr101. J Biol Chem 285 17725 PMID: 20378543
Dubos et al (2012) Alteration of synaptic network dynamics by the intellectual disability protein PAK3. J Neurosci 32 519 PMID: 22238087
Kiragasi et al (2017) A Presynaptic Glutamate Receptor Subunit Confers Robustness to Neurotransmission and Homeostatic Potentiation. Cell Rep 19 2694 PMID: 28658618
Nuno-Perez (2021) Stress undermines reward-guided cognitive performance through synaptic depression in the lateral habenula Neuron 109 947 PMID: 33535028
Wu et al (2021) Ketamine Rapidly Enhances Glutamate-Evoked Dendritic Spinogenesis in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Through Dopaminergic Mechanisms Biol.Psychiatry 89 1096 PMID: 33637303
Kamijo et al (2014) Input integration around the dendritic branches in hippocampal dentate granule cells. Cogn Neurodyn 8 267 PMID: 25009669
Goddard et al (2014) Spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition within a stimulus selection network in the avian midbrain. PLoS One 9 e85865 PMID: 24465755
Ikrar et al (2014) Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus. Front Neural Circuits 7 204 PMID: 24421758
Tazerart et al (2019) Spike-timing-dependent plasticity rule for single, clustered and distributed dendritic spines. Nat Commun 11 4276 PMID: 32848151
Obashi et al (2019) Precise Temporal Regulation of Molecular Diffusion within Dendritic Spines by Actin Polymers during Structural Plasticity. Cell Rep 27 1503 PMID: 31042476
Oberlander (2016) 17β-OEAcutely Potentiates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus through Distinct Mechanisms in Males and Females. J Neurosci 36 2677 PMID: 26937008
Earls et al (2010) Dysregulation of presynaptic calcium and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome. J Biol Chem 30 15843 PMID: 21106823
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Cheriyan and Sheets (2018) Altered Excitability and Local Connectivity of mPFC-PAG Neurons in a Mouse Model of Neuropathic Pain. J Neurosci 38 4829 PMID: 29695413
Mitchell et al (2019) Probing Single Synapses via the Photolytic Release of Neurotransmitters Front Synaptic Neurosci 11 PMID: 31354469
Tao et al (2006) Neutralization of the aspartic acid residue Asp-367, but not Asp-454, inhibits binding of Na+ to the glutamate-free form and cycling of the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Biol Chem 281 10263 PMID: 16478724
Araya et al (2006) Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 18799 PMID: 17132736
El-Kouhen et al (2006) Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 149 761 PMID: 17016515
Araya et al (2006) The spine neck filters membrane potentials. J Neurosci 103 17961 PMID: 17093040
Shankar et al (2007) Natural oligomers of the Alzheimer amyloid-beta protein induce reversible synapse loss by modulating an NMDA-type glutamate receptor-dependent signaling pathway. J Neurosci 27 2866 PMID: 17360908
Brill and Huguenard (2008) Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit. J Reprod Dev 28 13918 PMID: 19091980
Huang et al (2004) Astrocyte glutamate transporters regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of hippocampal interneurons. J Neurosci 24 4551 PMID: 15140926
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