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Biological Activity for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
MNI-caged-L-glutamate is a form of glutamate linked to a photo-protecting group, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI); it rapidly and efficiently releasesL-glutamate (Cat. No. 0218) by photolysis (300 - 380 nm excitation) with a quantum yield in the 0.065-0.085 range. It is also suitable for use with two-photon uncaging microscopy (cross-section of 0.06 GM at 730 nm). MNI-caged-L-glutamate is optically compatible with other chromophores used for fluorescence imaging, such as GFP, YFP and most Ca2+ dyes. MNI-caged-L-glutamate is 2.5-fold more efficient at releasing L-glutamate than NI-caged L-glutamate. MNI-caged-L-glutamate is water-soluble, stable at neutral pH, highly resistant to hydrolysis and pharmacologically inactive at neuronal glutamate receptors and transporters (up to mM concentrations). MNI-caged-L-glutamate can be used for in situ studies of fast synaptic glutamate receptors.
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Sold under license from the Medical Research Council
Technical Data for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 323.3. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||6.19 mL||30.93 mL||61.86 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.24 mL||6.19 mL||12.37 mL|
|5 mM||0.62 mL||3.09 mL||6.19 mL|
|25 mM||0.12 mL||0.62 mL||1.24 mL|
Product Datasheets for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
References for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Canepari et al (2001) Photochemical and pharmacological evaluation of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-amino acids as novel, fast caged neurotransmitters. J.Neurosci.Methods 112 29 PMID: 11640955
Maier et al (2005) Comparative analysis of inhibitory effects of caged ligands for the NMDA receptor. J.Neurosci.Methods 142 1 PMID: 15652611
Matsuzaki et al (2001) Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Nat.Neurosci. 4 1086 PMID: 11687814
Papageorgiou and Corrie (2000) Effects of aromatic substitutions on the photocleavage of 1-acyl-7-nitroindolines. Tetrahedron 56 8197
Palma-Cerda et al (2012) New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups. Neuropharmacology. 63 624 PMID: 22609535
Ellis-Davies (2019) Two-Photon Uncaging of Glutamate Front Synaptic Neurosci. 10 48 PMID: 30687075
If you know of a relevant reference for MNI-caged-L-glutamate, please let us know.
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Keywords: MNI-caged-L-glutamate, MNI-caged-L-glutamate supplier, Stable, photoreleaser, L-glutamate, Caged, Compounds, Glutamate, mGlur, Receptors, Metabotropic, Non-Selective, iGlur, Ionotropic, agonists, MNI, glutamate, MNI-Glutamate, 4-Methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-caged-L-glutamate, Miscellaneous, Non-selective, mGlu, 1490, Tocris Bioscience
61 Citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate include:
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Kiragasi et al (2017) A Presynaptic Glutamate Receptor Subunit Confers Robustness to Neurotransmission and Homeostatic Potentiation. Cell Rep 19 2694 PMID: 28658618
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Apostolides and Trussell (2013) Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse. J Neurosci 33 4768 PMID: 23486948
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Nikolenko et al (2009) SLM Microscopy: Scanless Two-Photon Imaging and Photostimulation with Spatial Light Modulators. Front Neural Circuits 2 5 PMID: 19129923
Holbro et al (2009) Differential distribution of endoplasmic reticulum controls metabotropic signaling and plasticity at hippocampal synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 15055 PMID: 19706463
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Davison and Ehlers (2011) Neural circuit mechanisms for pattern detection and feature combination in olfactory cortex. Neuron 70 82 PMID: 21482358
Vandenberg et al (2011) Water and urea permeation pathways of the human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1. Biochem J 439 333 PMID: 21732909
Doretto et al (2011) Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development. PLoS One 6 e19849 PMID: 21589880
Wood et al (2009) Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in an RNA interference model of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 29 12440 PMID: 19812320
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Chopek et al (2018) Sub-populations of Spinal V3 Interneurons Form Focal Modules of Layered Pre-motor Microcircuits. Cell Rep 25 146 PMID: 30282024
Lu et al (2017) Slow AMPAR Synaptic Transmission Is Determined by Stargazin and Glutamate Transporters. Neuron 96 73 PMID: 28919175
Chang et al (2017) CaMKII Autophosphorylation Is Necessary for Optimal Integration of Ca2+ Signals during LTP Induction, but Not Maintenance. Neuron 94 800 PMID: 28521133
Goo et al (2017) Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines. J Cell Biol 216 2499 PMID: 28630145
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Harnett et al (2015) Distribution and function of HCN channels in the apical dendritic tuft of neocortical pyramidal neurons. PLoS One 35 1024 PMID: 25609619
Erlandson et al (2015) The Functional Organization of Neocortical Networks Investigated in Slices with Local Field Recordings and Laser Scanning Photostimulation. Front Cell Neurosci 10 e0132008 PMID: 26134668
Ferreira et al (2015) Highly differentiated cellular and circuit properties of infralimbic pyramidal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray and amygdala. Nat Commun 9 161 PMID: 25972785
Laprell et al (2015) Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch. PLoS One 6 8076 PMID: 26311290
Otmakhov et al (2015) Fast Decay of CaMKII FRET Sensor Signal in Spines after LTP Induction Is Not Due to Its Dephosphorylation. Front Cell Neurosci 10 e0130457 PMID: 26086939
Yang et al (2015) The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels. J Neurosci 9 469 PMID: 26696828
Callender et al (2012) Mechanism of inhibition of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 by the conformationally constrained glutamate analogue (+)-HIP-B. Biochemistry 51 5486 PMID: 22703277
Ferrario et al (2012) Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration alters NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry in nucleus accumbens dendritic spines. PLoS One 7 e40898 PMID: 22870207
Zhang et al (2012) Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 32 1183 PMID: 22279204
Hammond et al (2010) Discovery of a Novel Chemical Class of mGlu(5) Allosteric Ligands with Distinct Modes of Pharmacology. ACS Chem Neurosci 1 702 PMID: 20981342
Tao et al (2010) Mechanism of cation binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1 probed with mutation of the conserved amino acid residue Thr101. J Biol Chem 285 17725 PMID: 20378543
Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040
Araya et al (2006) The spine neck filters membrane potentials. J Neurosci 103 17961 PMID: 17093040
Tao et al (2006) Neutralization of the aspartic acid residue Asp-367, but not Asp-454, inhibits binding of Na+ to the glutamate-free form and cycling of the glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Biol Chem 281 10263 PMID: 16478724
Araya et al (2006) Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 18799 PMID: 17132736
El-Kouhen et al (2006) Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 149 761 PMID: 17016515
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We buy this product in bulk for use in all of our uncaging experiments. High frequency uncaging next to dendritic spine head induces reliable spine growth, indicative of synapse strengthening.
We resuspend in ACSF and found that we can freeze and reuse the solution. However, when suspended in HBSS it is no longer effective after freezing.
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