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Biological Activity for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
MNI-caged-L-glutamate is a form of glutamate linked to a photo-protecting group, 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI); it rapidly and efficiently releases L-glutamate (Cat. No. 0218) by photolysis (300 - 380 nm excitation) with a quantum yield in the 0.065-0.085 range. It is also suitable for use with two-photon uncaging microscopy (cross-section of 0.06 GM at 730 nm). MNI-caged-L-glutamate is optically compatible with other chromophores used for fluorescence imaging, such as GFP, YFP and most Ca2+ dyes. MNI-caged-L-glutamate is 2.5-fold more efficient at releasing L-glutamate than NI-caged L-glutamate. MNI-caged-L-glutamate is water-soluble, stable at neutral pH, highly resistant to hydrolysis and pharmacologically inactive at neuronal glutamate receptors and transporters (up to mM concentrations). MNI-caged-L-glutamate can be used for in situ studies of fast synaptic glutamate receptors.
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Sold under license from the Medical Research Council
Technical Data for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 323.3. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||6.19 mL||30.93 mL||61.86 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.24 mL||6.19 mL||12.37 mL|
|5 mM||0.62 mL||3.09 mL||6.19 mL|
|25 mM||0.12 mL||0.62 mL||1.24 mL|
Product Datasheets for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
References for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Canepari et al (2001) Photochemical and pharmacological evaluation of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-amino acids as novel, fast caged neurotransmitters. J.Neurosci.Methods 112 29 PMID: 11640955
Maier et al (2005) Comparative analysis of inhibitory effects of caged ligands for the NMDA receptor. J.Neurosci.Methods 142 1 PMID: 15652611
Matsuzaki et al (2001) Dendritic spine geometry is critical for AMPA receptor expression in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Nat.Neurosci. 4 1086 PMID: 11687814
Papageorgiou and Corrie (2000) Effects of aromatic substitutions on the photocleavage of 1-acyl-7-nitroindolines. Tetrahedron 56 8197
Palma-Cerda et al (2012) New caged neurotransmitter analogs selective for glutamate receptor sub-types based on methoxynitroindoline and nitrophenylethoxycarbonyl caging groups. Neuropharmacology. 63 624 PMID: 22609535
Ellis-Davies (2019) Two-Photon Uncaging of Glutamate Front Synaptic Neurosci. 10 48 PMID: 30687075
If you know of a relevant reference for MNI-caged-L-glutamate, please let us know.
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Keywords: MNI-caged-L-glutamate, MNI-caged-L-glutamate supplier, Stable, photoreleaser, L-glutamate, Caged, Compounds, Glutamate, mGlur, Receptors, Metabotropic, Non-Selective, iGlur, Ionotropic, agonists, MNI, glutamate, MNI-Glutamate, 4-Methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-caged-L-glutamate, Miscellaneous, Non-selective, mGlu, 1490, Tocris Bioscience
61 Citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for MNI-caged-L-glutamate include:
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Wu et al (2021) Ketamine Rapidly Enhances Glutamate-Evoked Dendritic Spinogenesis in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Through Dopaminergic Mechanisms Biol.Psychiatry 89 1096 PMID: 33637303
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Laprell et al (2015) Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch. PLoS One 6 8076 PMID: 26311290
Otmakhov et al (2015) Fast Decay of CaMKII FRET Sensor Signal in Spines after LTP Induction Is Not Due to Its Dephosphorylation. Front Cell Neurosci 10 e0130457 PMID: 26086939
Yang et al (2015) The Shaping of Two Distinct Dendritic Spikes by A-Type Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels. J Neurosci 9 469 PMID: 26696828
Callender et al (2012) Mechanism of inhibition of the glutamate transporter EAAC1 by the conformationally constrained glutamate analogue (+)-HIP-B. Biochemistry 51 5486 PMID: 22703277
Ferrario et al (2012) Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration alters NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry in nucleus accumbens dendritic spines. PLoS One 7 e40898 PMID: 22870207
Zhang et al (2012) Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 32 1183 PMID: 22279204
Hammond et al (2010) Discovery of a Novel Chemical Class of mGlu(5) Allosteric Ligands with Distinct Modes of Pharmacology. ACS Chem Neurosci 1 702 PMID: 20981342
Tao et al (2010) Mechanism of cation binding to the glutamate transporter EAAC1 probed with mutation of the conserved amino acid residue Thr101. J Biol Chem 285 17725 PMID: 20378543
Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040
Brill and Huguenard (2008) Sequential changes in AMPA receptor targeting in the developing neocortical excitatory circuit. J Reprod Dev 28 13918 PMID: 19091980
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Shankar et al (2007) Natural oligomers of the Alzheimer amyloid-beta protein induce reversible synapse loss by modulating an NMDA-type glutamate receptor-dependent signaling pathway. J Neurosci 27 2866 PMID: 17360908
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Oberlander (2016) 17β-OEAcutely Potentiates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus through Distinct Mechanisms in Males and Females. J Neurosci 36 2677 PMID: 26937008
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Araya et al (2006) Dendritic spines linearize the summation of excitatory potentials. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 18799 PMID: 17132736
El-Kouhen et al (2006) Blockade of mGluR1 receptor results in analgesia and disruption of motor and cognitive performances: effects of A-841720, a novel non-competitive mGluR1 receptor antagonist. Br J Pharmacol 149 761 PMID: 17016515
Otopalik et al (2019) Neuronal morphologies built for reliable physiology in a rhythmic motor circuit. Elife 8 PMID: 30657452
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Doretto et al (2011) Oligodendrocytes as regulators of neuronal networks during early postnatal development. PLoS One 6 e19849 PMID: 21589880
Xiao et al (2018) OXT functions as a spatiotemporal filter for excitatory synaptic inputs to VTA DA neurons. Elife 7 PMID: 29676731
Chopek et al (2018) Sub-populations of Spinal V3 Interneurons Form Focal Modules of Layered Pre-motor Microcircuits. Cell Rep 25 146 PMID: 30282024
Hangen et al (2018) Neuronal Activity and Intracellular Calcium Levels Regulate Intracellular Transport of Newly Synthesized AMPAR. Cell Rep 24 1001 PMID: 30044968
Lu et al (2017) Slow AMPAR Synaptic Transmission Is Determined by Stargazin and Glutamate Transporters. Neuron 96 73 PMID: 28919175
Chang et al (2017) CaMKII Autophosphorylation Is Necessary for Optimal Integration of Ca2+ Signals during LTP Induction, but Not Maintenance. Neuron 94 800 PMID: 28521133
Goo et al (2017) Activity-dependent trafficking of lysosomes in dendrites and dendritic spines. J Cell Biol 216 2499 PMID: 28630145
Athilingam et al (2017) Serotonin enhances excitability and gamma frequency temporal integration in mouse prefrontal fast-spiking interneurons. Elife 6 PMID: 29206101
Sigler et al (2017) Formation and Maintenance of Functional Spines in the Absence of Presynaptic Glutamate Release. Neuron 94 304 PMID: 28426965
Otopalik et al (2017) When complex neuronal structures may not matter. Elife 6 PMID: 28165322
Zhang et al (2016) Stereotyped initiation of retinal waves by bipolar cells via presynaptic NMDA autoreceptors. Nat.Commun. 7 12650 PMID: 27586999
Goddard et al (2014) Spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition within a stimulus selection network in the avian midbrain. PLoS One 9 e85865 PMID: 24465755
Ikrar et al (2014) Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus. Front Neural Circuits 7 204 PMID: 24421758
Kamijo et al (2014) Input integration around the dendritic branches in hippocampal dentate granule cells. Cogn Neurodyn 8 267 PMID: 25009669
Biase et al (2011) NMDA receptor signaling in oligodendrocyte progenitors is not required for oligodendrogenesis and myelination. Oncoscience 31 12650 PMID: 21880926
Nothmann et al (2011) Hetero-oligomerization of neuronal glutamate transporters. J Neurosci 286 3935 PMID: 21127051
Huang et al (2004) Astrocyte glutamate transporters regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of hippocampal interneurons. J Neurosci 24 4551 PMID: 15140926
Dubos et al (2012) Alteration of synaptic network dynamics by the intellectual disability protein PAK3. J Neurosci 32 519 PMID: 22238087
Earls et al (2010) Dysregulation of presynaptic calcium and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of 22q11 deletion syndrome. J Biol Chem 30 15843 PMID: 21106823
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