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Fluorescent D-amino acid. Suitable for labeling peptidoglycans in live bacteria. Results in strong peripheral and septal labeling of diverse bacterial cell populations without affecting growth rates. Displays mitochondrial outer membrane permeability. Excitation/emission λ ~405/450 nm.
Figure 1: Investigating mycobacteria cell wall formation using FDAA HADA. Image showing FDAA HADA incorporation in log-phase growth of WT, Δ L,D-transpeptidases (LDT) and Δ L,D-transpeptidases (LDT)comp cells. Scale = 5 μm.
Baranowski et al show FDAAs are incorporated asymmetrically by L,D-transpeptidases. For more information on this work and to request full protocols read Baranowski et al (2018) Maturing Mycobacterium smegmatis peptidoglycan requires non-canonical crosslinks to maintain shape Elife 16 e37516 PMID: 30324906
Figure 2: Using FDAAs HADA and RADA (Cat. No 6649) to study peptidoglycan enzyme and substrate distribution, and the role of polar cell growth and peptidoglycan segregation over time. Image shows peptidoglycan segregation over time. Left to right - 2 mins HADA pulse (cyan), 45 min outgrowth, followed by 2 min RADA chase (magenta) in WT Msm cells. New cell wall (magenta), oldest cell wall (cyan). Scale = 5 μm.
For more information on this work and to request full protocols please read García-Heredia et al (2018) Peptidoglycan precursor synthesis along the sidewall of pole-growing mycobacteria. Elife 10
Optical Data for HADA
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 328.71. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.04 mL||15.21 mL||30.42 mL|
|5 mM||0.61 mL||3.04 mL||6.08 mL|
|10 mM||0.3 mL||1.52 mL||3.04 mL|
|50 mM||0.06 mL||0.3 mL||0.61 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Kuru et al (2012) In Situ probing of newly synthesized peptidoglycan in live bacteria with fluorescent D-amino acids. Angew.Chem.Int.Ed. 51 12519 PMID: 23055266
Hsu et al (2017) Full color palette of fluorescent d-amino acids for in situ labeling of bacterial cell walls. Chem.Sci. 8 6313 PMID: 28989665
Botella et al (2017) Distinct spatiotemporal dynamics of peptidoglycan synthesis between Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mbio. 8 e01183 PMID: 28900018
If you know of a relevant reference for HADA, please let us know.
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Keywords: HADA, HADA supplier, fluorescent, D-amino, acid, FDAA, peptidoglycans, labeling, bacteria, labels, labelling, blue, Unnatural, Amino, Acids, Fluorescent, Probes, for, Imaging, Bacteria, 6647, Tocris Bioscience
2 Citations for HADA
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for HADA include:
Baranowski et al (2018) Maturing Mycobacterium smegmatis peptidoglycan requires non-canonical crosslinks to maintain shape. ELife 7 PMID: 30324906
Garcia-Heredia et al (2018) Peptidoglycan precursor synthesis along the sidewall of pole-growing mycobacteria ELife 7 PMID: 30198841
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We use this product to label the peptidoglycan of growing mycobacterial species. We generally follow published protocols for this, of which there are several. This will label regions of active peptidoglycan synthesis in the cell.
Literature in this Area
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