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GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
Biological Activity for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride is a selective noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist (IC50 values are 10-20, ~ 450 and >> 50 μM for AMPA-, kainate- and NMDA-induced responses respectively). Skeletal muscle relaxant and orally-active anticonvulsant. Has anti-proliferative effects in transformed cells.
Compound Libraries for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
Technical Data for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 366.24. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||5.46 mL||27.3 mL||54.61 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.09 mL||5.46 mL||10.92 mL|
|5 mM||0.55 mL||2.73 mL||5.46 mL|
|25 mM||0.11 mL||0.55 mL||1.09 mL|
Product Datasheets for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
References for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Donevan and Rogawsk (1993) GYKI 52466, a 2,3-benzodiazepine, is a highly selective, non-competitive antagonist of AMPA/kainate receptor responses. Neuron 10 51 PMID: 7678966
Paternain et al (1995) Selective antagonism of AMPA receptors unmasks kainate receptor-mediated responses in hippocampal neurons. Neuron 14 185 PMID: 7826635
Rzeski et al (2001) Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 98 6372 PMID: 11331750
Szabados et al (2001) Comparison of anticonvulsive and acute neuroprotective activity of three 2,3-benzodiazepine compounds, GYKI 52466, GYKI 53405, and GYKI 53655. Brain Res.Bull. 55 387 PMID: 11489346
Tarnawa et al (1989) Electrophysiological studies with a 2,3-benzodiazepine muscle relaxant: GYKI 52466. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 167 193 PMID: 2574112
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Keywords: GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride, GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride supplier, Selective, non-competitive, AMPA, antagonists, Glutamate, Receptors, iGlur, Ionotropic, GYKI52466, dihydrochloride, 102771-26-6, 1454, Tocris Bioscience
18 Citations for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride include:
Bao et al (2016) The Prefrontal Dectin-1/AMPA Receptor Signaling Pathway Mediates The Robust and Prolonged Antidepressant Effect of Proteo-β-Glucan from Maitake. Sci Rep 6 28395 PMID: 27329257
Bao et al (2016) Lentinan produces a robust antidepressant-like effect via enhancing the prefrontal Dectin-1/AMPA receptor signaling pathway Behavioural Brain Research 317 263 PMID: 27693847
Vielma et al (2014) Nitric oxide modulates the temporal properties of the glutamate response in type 4 OFF bipolar cells. PLoS One 9 e114330 PMID: 25463389
Lobb et al (2010) A dynamic role for GABA receptors on the firing pattern of midbrain DArgic neurons. J Neurophysiol 104 403 PMID: 20445035
Gerstner et al (2005) Glutaric acid and its metabolites cause apoptosis in immature oligodendrocytes: a novel mechanism of white matter degeneration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Pediatr Res 57 771 PMID: 15774829
Park et al (2009) Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. Mol Pain 4 67 PMID: 19116032
Santos et al (2009) Transmission efficacy and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses formed by excitatory interneurons of the substantia gelatinosa in the rat spinal cord. PLoS One 4 e8047 PMID: 19956641
Fritsch et al (2009) Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis. Neuroscience 163 415 PMID: 19540312
Lebrun-Julien et al (2009) Excitotoxic death of retinal neurons in vivo occurs via a non-cell-autonomous mechanism. J Neurosci 29 5536 PMID: 19403821
Huang et al (2004) Astrocyte glutamate transporters regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of hippocampal interneurons. J Neurosci 24 4551 PMID: 15140926
Bretin et al (2017) Pharmacological characterisation of S 47445, a novel positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors. PLoS One 12 e0184429 PMID: 28886144
Kopach et al (2011) Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain 152 912 PMID: 21282008
Lin et al (2008) Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 37 770 PMID: 18289871
Fernandes et al (2014) In vitro ischemia triggers a transcriptional response to down-regulate synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons. PLoS One 9 e99958 PMID: 24960035
Du et al (2008) The role of hippocampal GluR1 and GluR2 receptors in manic-like behavior. J Neurosci 28 68 PMID: 18171924
Avshalumov et al (2008) AMPA receptor-dependent H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons but not DA axons: one source of a retrograde signal that can inhibit DA release. J Neurophysiol 100 1590 PMID: 18632893
Li et al (2016) 3'-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) Produces a Rapid and Robust Antidepressant Effect via Enhancing Prefrontal AMPA Receptor Signaling Pathway. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 19 PMID: 26443809
Farley et al (2010) Antidepressant-like effects of an AMPA receptor potentiator under a chronic mild stress paradigm. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 13 1207 PMID: 20059803
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Reviews for GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride
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We use GYKI 52466 dihydrochloride at 10uM to inhibit AMPA receptors during our electrophysiology experiments. This allows us to isolate and study the effects of manipulations on other glutamate receptors. In the set of experiments we used this product for we were examining Kainate receptor properties and so the GYKI was used in conjunction with an NMDAR antagonist.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.
Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Learning & Memory Poster
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.