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Potent and highly selective kainate receptor agonist, with an IC50 for inhibition of [3H]-kainate binding of 35 nM and almost 3,000- and 200-fold selectivity for kainate receptors over AMPA and NMDA receptors respectively. Also selectively inhibits the cloned excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT2 at higher concentrations. Also available as part of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Inhibitor Tocriset™ and Kainate Receptor Tocriset™.
Sold with the permission of Annovis Inc.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 161.16. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||12.41 mL||62.05 mL||124.1 mL|
|2.5 mM||2.48 mL||12.41 mL||24.82 mL|
|5 mM||1.24 mL||6.21 mL||12.41 mL|
|25 mM||0.25 mL||1.24 mL||2.48 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Donevan et al (1998) The methylglutamate, SYM 2081, is a potent and highly selective agonist at kainate receptors. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 285 539 PMID: 9580595
Jones et al (1997) Desensitization of kainate receptors by kainate, glutamate and diastereomers of 4-methylglutamate. Neuropharmacology 36 853 PMID: 9225313
Savidge et al (1999) Characterisation of kainate receptor mediated whole-cell currents in rat cultured cerebellar granule cells. Neuropharmacology 38 375 PMID: 10219975
Zhou et al (1997) (2S,4R)-4-Methylglutamic acid (SYM 2081): a selective, high affinity ligand for kainate receptors. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 280 422 PMID: 8996224
If you know of a relevant reference for SYM 2081, please let us know.
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Keywords: SYM 2081, SYM 2081 supplier, inhibitors, inhibits, EAAT2, kainate, receptors, agonist, selective, EAAT, Excitatory, Amino, Acid, Transporters, GLT-1, Glutamate, Monoamine, Neurotransmitter, iGluR, Ionotropic, SYM2081, Kainate, Receptors, 0903, Tocris Bioscience
5 Citations for SYM 2081
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for SYM 2081 include:
Rojas et al (2013) Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors potentiates heteromeric kainate receptors. Mol Pharmacol 83 106 PMID: 23066089
Santos et al (2009) Transmission efficacy and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses formed by excitatory interneurons of the substantia gelatinosa in the rat spinal cord. PLoS One 4 e8047 PMID: 19956641
Gangadharan et al (2011) Peripheral calcium-permeable AMPA receptors regulate chronic inflammatory pain in mice. J Clin Invest 121 1608 PMID: 21383497
Yoshii et al (2013) A Myosin Va mutant mouse with disruptions in glutamate synaptic development and mature plasticity in visual cortex. Addict Biol 33 8472 PMID: 23658184
Vielma et al (2014) Nitric oxide modulates the temporal properties of the glutamate response in type 4 OFF bipolar cells. PLoS One 9 e114330 PMID: 25463389
Do you know of a great paper that uses SYM 2081 from Tocris? Please let us know.
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Learning & Memory Poster
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.