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Biological Activity for Methoxy-X04
Methoxy-X04 is a fluorescent amyloid β (Aβ) probe for the detection and quantification of plaques, tangles and cerebrovascular amyloid. Methoxy-X04 displays high in vitro binding affinity (Ki = 26.8 nM); binds selectively to fibrillar β-sheet deposits. Methoxy-X04 is a derivative of Congo Red (Cat. No. 5167). Methoxy-X04 can be used for in vivo Aβ plaque labeling. Methoxy-X04 co-localizes with CD68+ phagosomes in plaque-associated Iba1+ microglia; and it labels molecularly distinct plaque-associated microglia populations. Brain penetrant. Em/Ex λ = 370/452 nm respectively.
Optical Data for Methoxy-X04
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Technical Data for Methoxy-X04
|Storage||Store at +4°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Methoxy-X04
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Methoxy-X04
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 344.4. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||2.9 mL||14.52 mL||29.04 mL|
|5 mM||0.58 mL||2.9 mL||5.81 mL|
|10 mM||0.29 mL||1.45 mL||2.9 mL|
|50 mM||0.06 mL||0.29 mL||0.58 mL|
References for Methoxy-X04
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Bolmont et al (2008) Dynamics of the microglial/amyloid interaction indicate a role in plaque maintenance. J.Neurosci. 28 4283 PMID: 18417708
Yamanaka et al (2012) PPARγ/RXRα-induced and CD36-mediated microglial amyloid-β phagocytosis results in cognitive improvement in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 mice. J.Neurosci. 32 17321 PMID: 23197723
Klunk et al (2002) Imaging Aβ plaques in living transgenic mice with multiphoton microscopy and methoxy-X04, a systemically administered Congo red derivative. J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol. 61 797 PMID: 12230326
Grubman et al (2021) Transcriptional signature in microglia associated with Aβ plaque phagocytosis. Nat.Commun. 12 3015 PMID: 34021136
Heneka et al (2013) NLRP3 is activated in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Nature. 493 674 PMID: 23254930
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Keywords: Methoxy-X04, Methoxy-X04 supplier, amyloid, beta, fluorescent, probes, detection, alzheimers, disease, brain, penetrant, blood, barrier, permeable, high, affinity, amyloidbeta, amyloidb, amyloidβ, Amyloid, Beta, Peptides, Fluorescent, B, Probes, 4920, Tocris Bioscience
41 Citations for Methoxy-X04
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Methoxy-X04 include:
Enikö et al (2023) The 18?kDa translocator protein is associated with microglia in the hippocampus of non-demented elderly subjects. Aging Brain 2 100045 PMID: 36908874
Marie-Josée et al (2023) Astrocytes display ultrastructural alterations and heterogeneity in the hippocampus of aged APP-PS1 mice and human post-mortem brain samples. J Neuroinflammation 20 73 PMID: 36918925
Melanie et al (2020) Different effects of constitutive and induced microbiota modulation on microglia in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol Commun 8 119 PMID: 32727612
Xiangyu et al (2020) Depletion of NK Cells Improves Cognitive Function in the Alzheimer Disease Mouse Model. J Immunol 205 502-510 PMID: 32503894
Elisabete et al (2020) miRNA-31 Improves Cognition and Abolishes Amyloid-β Pathology by Targeting APP and BACE1 in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 19 1219-1236 PMID: 32069773
Chris B et al (2020) High fat diet worsens Alzheimer's disease-related behavioral abnormalities and neuropathology in APP/PS1 mice, but not by synergistically decreasing cerebral blood flow. Sci Rep 10 9884 PMID: 32555372
Thomas J et al (2020) β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits inflammasome activation to attenuate Alzheimer's disease pathology. J Neuroinflammation 17 280 PMID: 32958021
Chris B et al (2020) A pilot study investigating the effects of voluntary exercise on capillary stalling and cerebral blood flow in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One 15 e0235691 PMID: 32857763
Tom H et al (2020) IL-33-PU.1 Transcriptome Reprogramming Drives Functional State Transition and Clearance Activity of Microglia in Alzheimer's Disease. Cell Rep 31 107530 PMID: 32320664
Rui et al (2020) Intraperitoneal injection of IFN-γ restores microglial autophagy, promotes amyloid-β clearance and improves cognition in APP/PS1 mice. Cell Death Dis 11 440 PMID: 32514180
Lin et al (2020) OCIAD1 contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease by inducing mitochondria dysfunction, neuronal vulnerability and synaptic damages. EBioMedicine 51 102569 PMID: 31931285
Fu et al (2016) IL-33 ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive decline. Elife 113 E2705 PMID: 27091974
Plog et al (2018) Transcranial optical imaging reveals a pathway for optimizing the delivery of immunotherapeutics to the brain. JCI Insight 3 PMID: 30333324
Blume et al (2018) Microglial response to increasing amyloid load saturates with aging: a longitudinal dual tracer in vivo μPET-study. J Neuroinflammation 15 307 PMID: 30400912
Möhle et al (2016) Chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection enhances β-amyloid phagocytosis and clearance by recruited monocytes. Acta Neuropathol Commun 4 25 PMID: 26984535
Ulland et al (2017) TREM2 Maintains Microglial Metabolic Fitness in Alzheimer's Disease. Cell 170 649 PMID: 28802038
Tzu-Ming et al (2019) Complement C3 Is Activated in Human AD Brain and Is Required for Neurodegeneration in Mouse Models of Amyloidosis and Tauopathy. Cell Rep 28 2111-2123.e6 PMID: 31433986
Jie et al (2021) BAD-mediated neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathology. iScience 24 102942 PMID: 34430820
Robert et al (2021) Retromer regulates the lysosomal clearance of MAPT/tau. Autophagy 17 2217-2237 PMID: 32960680
Uri et al (2021) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates vascular dysfunction and amyloid burden in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model and in elderly patients. Aging (Albany NY) 13 20935-20961 PMID: 34499614
Ling et al (2021) Microglia use TAM receptors to detect and engulf amyloid β plaques. Nat Immunol 22 586-594 PMID: 33859405
Katerina et al (2021) In vivo two-photon microscopy protocol for imaging microglial responses and spine elimination at sites of fibrinogen deposition in mouse brain. STAR Protoc 2 100638 PMID: 34258598
Wei et al (2021) Quantitative in vivo assessment of amyloid-beta phagocytic capacity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. STAR Protoc 2 100265 PMID: 33490981
Arthur et al (2021) Population imaging of synaptically released glutamate in mouse hippocampal slices. STAR Protoc 2 100877 PMID: 34816125
Medrano-Jimé nez et al (2019) Malva parviflora extract ameliorates the deleterious effects of a high fat diet on the cognitive deficit in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by restoring microglial function via a PPAR-γ-dependent mechanism. J Neuroinflammation 16 143 PMID: 31291963
Marco et al (2022) Distinct Aβ pathology in the olfactory bulb and olfactory deficits in a mouse model of Aβ and α-syn co-pathology. Brain Pathol 32 e13032 PMID: 34713522
Ulrike et al (2022) Sustained Trem2 stabilization accelerates microglia heterogeneity and Aβ pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Rep 39 110883 PMID: 35649351
Ajay P et al (2022) Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reduces Neurite Density and Plaque Intensity in a Murine Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis 90 585-597 PMID: 36155509
Ulrike et al (2022) APP accumulates with presynaptic proteins around amyloid plaques: A role for presynaptic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimers Dement 18 2099-2116 PMID: 35076178
Wei et al (2022) Concerted type I interferon signaling in microglia and neural cells promotes memory impairment associated with amyloid β plaques. Immunity 55 879-894.e6 PMID: 35443157
Oliver et al (2022) Microglia contribute to the propagation of Aβ into unaffected brain tissue. Nat Neurosci 25 20-25 PMID: 34811521
Cecilia J et al (2022) Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Modulate Microglia Function and Amyloid Dynamics in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Front Pharmacol 13 841766 PMID: 35645832
Christian et al (2022) Novel App knock-in mouse model shows key features of amyloid pathology and reveals profound metabolic dysregulation of microglia. Mol Neurodegener 17 41 PMID: 35690868
Charles et al (2022) Pathological changes induced by Alzheimer's brain inoculation in amyloid-beta plaque-bearing mice. Acta Neuropathol Commun 10 112 PMID: 35974399
Marie-Josée et al (2022) Ultrastructural characterization of dark microglia during aging in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease pathology and in human post-mortem brain samples. J Neuroinflammation 19 235 PMID: 36167544
Ingo et al (2022) Scalable tissue labeling and clearing of intact human organs. Nat Protoc 17 2188-2215 PMID: 35859136
Elly M et al (2022) Calcium signaling in individual APP/PS1 mouse dentate gyrus astrocytes increases ex vivo with Aβ pathology and age without affecting astrocyte network activity. J Neurosci Res 100 1281-1295 PMID: 35293016
Lieneke et al (2022) Amyloid-β plaques affect astrocyte Kir4.1 protein expression but not function in the dentate gyrus of APP/PS1 mice. Glia 70 748-767 PMID: 34981861
Soyeon et al (2022) Longitudinal intravital imaging of cerebral microinfarction reveals a dynamic astrocyte reaction leading to glial scar formation. Glia 70 975-988 PMID: 35106851
Socodato et al (2020) Microglia Dysfunction Caused by the Loss of Rhoa Disrupts Neuronal Physiology and Leads to Neurodegeneration Cell Rep 31 PMID: 32579923
Zhao et al (2020) Cellular and Molecular Probing of Intact Human Organs Cell 180 769 PMID: 32059778
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Reviews for Methoxy-X04
Average Rating: 5 (Based on 2 Reviews.)
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Methoxy staining of mouse brain (hippocampus) section mounted on glass microscope slide.
Injected IV, Methoxy-X04 labels amyloid plaques in AD models. Great tool to image various cellular processes around AD plaques.
Literature in this Area
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Fluorescent Dyes and Probes Research Product Guide
This product guide provides a background to the use of Fluorescent Dyes and Probes, as well as a comprehensive list of our:
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