Pricing Availability   Qty
Description: Brain penetrant fluorescent amyloid β probe. Used for: detection and quantification of plaques, tangles and cerebrovascular amyloid. Application: confocal microscopy, suitable for in vivo imaging
Chemical Name: 4,4'-[(2-methoxy-1,4-phenylene)di-(1E)-2,1-ethenediyl]bisphenol
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (41)
Reviews (2)
Literature (1)

Biological Activity for Methoxy-X04

Key information: Methoxy-X04 is a blood-brain barrier penetrant fluorescent amyloid β (Aβ) probe. Suitable for in vivo imaging.

Used for: the detection and quantification of Aβ plaques, tangles and cerebrovascular amyloid. Gives high resolution fluorescent imaging on individual plaques in live animals by 2-photon microscopy. Methoxy-X04 co-localizes with CD68+ phagosomes in plaque-associated Iba1+ microglia; and it labels molecularly distinct plaque-associated microglia populations.

Application: confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging.

Properties and Photophysical Data: Methoxy-X04 displays high in vitro binding affinity (Ki = 26.8 nM); binds selectively to fibrillar β-sheet deposits. Excitation and emission maxima (λ) are 370 nm and 452 nm, respectively.

Optical Data for Methoxy-X04

λabs 370 nm
λem 452 nm

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Technical Data for Methoxy-X04

M. Wt 344.4
Formula C23H20O3
Storage Store at +4°C
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 863918-78-9
PubChem ID 16049314
Smiles OC(C=C3)=CC=C3/C=C/C1=CC(OC)=C(/C=C/C2=CC=C(O)C=C2)C=C1

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for Methoxy-X04

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 34.44 100
ethanol 3.44 10

Preparing Stock Solutions for Methoxy-X04

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 344.4. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 2.9 mL 14.52 mL 29.04 mL
5 mM 0.58 mL 2.9 mL 5.81 mL
10 mM 0.29 mL 1.45 mL 2.9 mL
50 mM 0.06 mL 0.29 mL 0.58 mL

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Product Datasheets for Methoxy-X04

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for Methoxy-X04

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Bolmont et al (2008) Dynamics of the microglial/amyloid interaction indicate a role in plaque maintenance. J.Neurosci. 28 4283 PMID: 18417708

Yamanaka et al (2012) PPARγ/RXRα-induced and CD36-mediated microglial amyloid-β phagocytosis results in cognitive improvement in amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 mice. J.Neurosci. 32 17321 PMID: 23197723

Klunk et al (2002) Imaging Aβ plaques in living transgenic mice with multiphoton microscopy and methoxy-X04, a systemically administered Congo red derivative. J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol. 61 797 PMID: 12230326

Grubman et al (2021) Transcriptional signature in microglia associated with Aβ plaque phagocytosis. Nat.Commun. 12 3015 PMID: 34021136

Heneka et al (2013) NLRP3 is activated in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Nature. 493 674 PMID: 23254930

If you know of a relevant reference for Methoxy-X04, please let us know.

Keywords: Methoxy-X04, Methoxy-X04 supplier, amyloid, beta, fluorescent, probes, detection, alzheimers, disease, brain, penetrant, blood, barrier, permeable, high, affinity, amyloidbeta, amyloidb, amyloidβ, Amyloid, Beta, Peptides, Fluorescent, B, Probes, 4920, Tocris Bioscience

41 Citations for Methoxy-X04

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Methoxy-X04 include:

Ajay P et al (2022) Trimethylamine N-Oxide Reduces Neurite Density and Plaque Intensity in a Murine Model of Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis 90 585-597 PMID: 36155509

Ulrike et al (2022) APP accumulates with presynaptic proteins around amyloid plaques: A role for presynaptic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimers Dement 18 2099-2116 PMID: 35076178

Wei et al (2022) Concerted type I interferon signaling in microglia and neural cells promotes memory impairment associated with amyloid β plaques. Immunity 55 879-894.e6 PMID: 35443157

Oliver et al (2022) Microglia contribute to the propagation of Aβ into unaffected brain tissue. Nat Neurosci 25 20-25 PMID: 34811521

Cecilia J et al (2022) Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Modulate Microglia Function and Amyloid Dynamics in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Front Pharmacol 13 841766 PMID: 35645832

Christian et al (2022) Novel App knock-in mouse model shows key features of amyloid pathology and reveals profound metabolic dysregulation of microglia. Mol Neurodegener 17 41 PMID: 35690868

Charles et al (2022) Pathological changes induced by Alzheimer's brain inoculation in amyloid-beta plaque-bearing mice. Acta Neuropathol Commun 10 112 PMID: 35974399

Marie-Josée et al (2022) Ultrastructural characterization of dark microglia during aging in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease pathology and in human post-mortem brain samples. J Neuroinflammation 19 235 PMID: 36167544

Ingo et al (2022) Scalable tissue labeling and clearing of intact human organs. Nat Protoc 17 2188-2215 PMID: 35859136

Elly M et al (2022) Calcium signaling in individual APP/PS1 mouse dentate gyrus astrocytes increases ex vivo with Aβ pathology and age without affecting astrocyte network activity. J Neurosci Res 100 1281-1295 PMID: 35293016

Lieneke et al (2022) Amyloid-β plaques affect astrocyte Kir4.1 protein expression but not function in the dentate gyrus of APP/PS1 mice. Glia 70 748-767 PMID: 34981861

Soyeon et al (2022) Longitudinal intravital imaging of cerebral microinfarction reveals a dynamic astrocyte reaction leading to glial scar formation. Glia 70 975-988 PMID: 35106851

Marco et al (2022) Distinct Aβ pathology in the olfactory bulb and olfactory deficits in a mouse model of Aβ and α-syn co-pathology. Brain Pathol 32 e13032 PMID: 34713522

Ulrike et al (2022) Sustained Trem2 stabilization accelerates microglia heterogeneity and Aβ pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Cell Rep 39 110883 PMID: 35649351

Fu et al (2016) IL-33 ameliorates Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive decline. Elife 113 E2705 PMID: 27091974

Tzu-Ming et al (2019) Complement C3 Is Activated in Human AD Brain and Is Required for Neurodegeneration in Mouse Models of Amyloidosis and Tauopathy. Cell Rep 28 2111-2123.e6 PMID: 31433986

Möhle et al (2016) Chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection enhances β-amyloid phagocytosis and clearance by recruited monocytes. Acta Neuropathol Commun 4 25 PMID: 26984535

Melanie et al (2020) Different effects of constitutive and induced microbiota modulation on microglia in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol Commun 8 119 PMID: 32727612

Xiangyu et al (2020) Depletion of NK Cells Improves Cognitive Function in the Alzheimer Disease Mouse Model. J Immunol 205 502-510 PMID: 32503894

Lin et al (2020) OCIAD1 contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease by inducing mitochondria dysfunction, neuronal vulnerability and synaptic damages. EBioMedicine 51 102569 PMID: 31931285

Elisabete et al (2020) miRNA-31 Improves Cognition and Abolishes Amyloid-β Pathology by Targeting APP and BACE1 in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 19 1219-1236 PMID: 32069773

Chris B et al (2020) High fat diet worsens Alzheimer's disease-related behavioral abnormalities and neuropathology in APP/PS1 mice, but not by synergistically decreasing cerebral blood flow. Sci Rep 10 9884 PMID: 32555372

Thomas J et al (2020) β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits inflammasome activation to attenuate Alzheimer's disease pathology. J Neuroinflammation 17 280 PMID: 32958021

Chris B et al (2020) A pilot study investigating the effects of voluntary exercise on capillary stalling and cerebral blood flow in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One 15 e0235691 PMID: 32857763

Tom H et al (2020) IL-33-PU.1 Transcriptome Reprogramming Drives Functional State Transition and Clearance Activity of Microglia in Alzheimer's Disease. Cell Rep 31 107530 PMID: 32320664

Rui et al (2020) Intraperitoneal injection of IFN-γ restores microglial autophagy, promotes amyloid-β clearance and improves cognition in APP/PS1 mice. Cell Death Dis 11 440 PMID: 32514180

Enikö et al (2023) The 18?kDa translocator protein is associated with microglia in the hippocampus of non-demented elderly subjects. Aging Brain 2 100045 PMID: 36908874

Marie-Josée et al (2023) Astrocytes display ultrastructural alterations and heterogeneity in the hippocampus of aged APP-PS1 mice and human post-mortem brain samples. J Neuroinflammation 20 73 PMID: 36918925

Ulland et al (2017) TREM2 Maintains Microglial Metabolic Fitness in Alzheimer's Disease. Cell 170 649 PMID: 28802038

Socodato et al (2020) Microglia Dysfunction Caused by the Loss of Rhoa Disrupts Neuronal Physiology and Leads to Neurodegeneration Cell Rep 31 PMID: 32579923

Zhao et al (2020) Cellular and Molecular Probing of Intact Human Organs Cell 180 769 PMID: 32059778

Plog et al (2018) Transcranial optical imaging reveals a pathway for optimizing the delivery of immunotherapeutics to the brain. JCI Insight 3 PMID: 30333324

Blume et al (2018) Microglial response to increasing amyloid load saturates with aging: a longitudinal dual tracer in vivo μPET-study. J Neuroinflammation 15 307 PMID: 30400912

Medrano-Jimé nez et al (2019) Malva parviflora extract ameliorates the deleterious effects of a high fat diet on the cognitive deficit in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease by restoring microglial function via a PPAR-γ-dependent mechanism. J Neuroinflammation 16 143 PMID: 31291963

Jie et al (2021) BAD-mediated neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathology. iScience 24 102942 PMID: 34430820

Robert et al (2021) Retromer regulates the lysosomal clearance of MAPT/tau. Autophagy 17 2217-2237 PMID: 32960680

Uri et al (2021) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates vascular dysfunction and amyloid burden in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model and in elderly patients. Aging (Albany NY) 13 20935-20961 PMID: 34499614

Ling et al (2021) Microglia use TAM receptors to detect and engulf amyloid β plaques. Nat Immunol 22 586-594 PMID: 33859405

Katerina et al (2021) In vivo two-photon microscopy protocol for imaging microglial responses and spine elimination at sites of fibrinogen deposition in mouse brain. STAR Protoc 2 100638 PMID: 34258598

Wei et al (2021) Quantitative in vivo assessment of amyloid-beta phagocytic capacity in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. STAR Protoc 2 100265 PMID: 33490981

Arthur et al (2021) Population imaging of synaptically released glutamate in mouse hippocampal slices. STAR Protoc 2 100877 PMID: 34816125

Do you know of a great paper that uses Methoxy-X04 from Tocris? Please let us know.

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Methoxy staining of amyloid plaques in mouse brain.
By Cody Zurhellen on 04/24/2023
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: Brain

Methoxy staining of mouse brain (hippocampus) section mounted on glass microscope slide.

review image

Amyloid plaque labelling.
By Anonymous on 11/19/2018
Assay Type: In Vivo
Species: Mouse

Injected IV, Methoxy-X04 labels amyloid plaques in AD models. Great tool to image various cellular processes around AD plaques.

Literature in this Area

Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Fluorescent Dyes and Probes Research Product Guide

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