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Biological Activity for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid is a potent, competitive, transportable EAAT1-4 inhibitor/non-transportable EAAT5 inhibitor. In [3H]-d-Asp uptake assays in HEK293 cells expressing human EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3, Ki values are 11, 19, and 14 μM, respectively. In a FLIPR Membrane Potential (FMP) assay, Km values are 3.6, 3.8 and 3.2 μM for human EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3, respectively.
Technical Data for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 149.1. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||6.71 mL||33.53 mL||67.07 mL|
|5 mM||1.34 mL||6.71 mL||13.41 mL|
|10 mM||0.67 mL||3.35 mL||6.71 mL|
|50 mM||0.13 mL||0.67 mL||1.34 mL|
Product Datasheets for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
References for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Johnston et al (1980) Potentiation of L-glutamate and L-aspartate excitation of cat spinal neurones by the stereoisomers of threo-3-hydroxyaspartate. J.Neurochem. 34 241 PMID: 7452241
McBean and Roberts (1985) Neurotoxicity of L-glutamate and DL-threo-3-hydroxyaspartate in the rat striatum. J.Neurochem. 44 247 PMID: 2856883
Nakamura et al (1993) (2S,3S,4R)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine, a potent and competitive inhibitor of both glial and neuronal uptake of glutamate. Neuropharmacology 32 833 PMID: 7901789
Jensen and Bräuner-Osborne (2004) Pharmacological characterization of human excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay. Biochem.Pharmacol. 67 2115 PMID: 15135308
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1 Citation for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid include:
Nakade et al (2018) Gut microbiota-derived D-serine protects against acute kidney injury. JCI Insight 3 PMID: 30333299
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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Huntington's Disease Poster
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe monogenic neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the prevalent loss of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the striatum. This poster summarizes the effects of mutant huntingtin aggregation implicated in the pathology of HD, as well as highlighting the use of iPSCs for HD modeling.