GTS 21 dihydrochloride

Pricing Availability   Qty
Cat.No. 4557 - GTS 21 dihydrochloride | C19H20N2O2.2HCl | CAS No. 156223-05-1
Description: α7 nAChR partial agonist
Alternative Names: DMXBA
Chemical Name: 3-[(2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridine dihydrochloride
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Literature (6)

Biological Activity

Partial agonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs); also a weak α4β2 and 5-HT3 antagonist at micromolar concentrations. Exhibits improved sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice following both acute and chronic administration. Also shown to improve memory in several animal models; facilitates hippocampal long-term potentiation. Also has anti-inflammatory effects independent of α7 nAChRs.

Technical Data

M. Wt 381.3
Formula C19H20N2O2.2HCl
Storage Store at -20°C
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 156223-05-1
PubChem ID 122225
Smiles COC(C=C3OC)=CC=C3\C=C1C(C2=CC=CN=C2)=NCCC/1.Cl.Cl

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 19.07 50

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 381.3. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.5 mM 5.25 mL 26.23 mL 52.45 mL
2.5 mM 1.05 mL 5.25 mL 10.49 mL
5 mM 0.52 mL 2.62 mL 5.25 mL
25 mM 0.1 mL 0.52 mL 1.05 mL

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.

Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:


References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Stevens et al (2010) Continuous administration of a selective alpha7 nicotinic partial agonist, DMXBA, improves sensory inhibition without causing tachyphylaxis or receptor upregulation in DBA/2 mice. Brain.Res. 1352 140 PMID: 20599427

Meyer et al (1994) Effects of anabaseine-related analogs on rat brain nicotinic receptor binding and on avoidance behaviors. Drug Dev.Res. 31 127

Olincy et al (2012) Nicotinic mechanisms in the treatment of psychotic disorders: a focus on the a7 nicotinic receptor. Handb.Exp.Pharmacol. 213 211 PMID: 23027417

Garg and Loring et al (2019) GTS-21 has cell-specific anti-inflammatory effects independent of a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PLoS One 14 e0214942 PMID: 30947238

If you know of a relevant reference for GTS 21 dihydrochloride, please let us know.

View Related Products by Product Action

View all Nicotinic (α7) Receptor Agonists

Keywords: GTS 21 dihydrochloride, GTS 21 dihydrochloride supplier, GTS21, dihydrochloride, partial, agonist, a7, nAChR, nicotinic, acetylcholine, receptor, α7, agonists, a4b2, α4, β2, anti, inflammatory, Alzheimer's, disease, DMXBA, alpha7, alpha4beta2, Nicotinic, (a7), Receptors, 4557, Tocris Bioscience

Citations for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

Citations are publications that use Tocris products.

Currently there are no citations for GTS 21 dihydrochloride. Do you know of a great paper that uses GTS 21 dihydrochloride from Tocris? Please let us know.

Reviews for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review GTS 21 dihydrochloride and earn rewards!

Have you used GTS 21 dihydrochloride?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$50/€35/£30/$50CAN/¥300 Yuan/¥5000 Yen for first to review with an image

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review

Literature in this Area

Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.


Neurodegeneration Product Guide

A collection of over 275 products for neurodegeneration research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease

Pain Research Product Guide

A collection of over 280 products for pain research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Nociception
  • Ion Channels
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Intracellular Signaling
Nicotinic ACh Receptors

Nicotinic ACh Receptors Scientific Review

Updated in 2014, this review by Sue Wonnacott summarizes the diverse structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gives an in-depth review of the ligands available for nAChR research. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.


Alzheimer's Poster

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.

Learning & Memory

Learning & Memory Poster

Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.


Pain Poster

Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.