GTS 21 dihydrochloride

Discontinued Product

GTS 21 dihydrochloride (Cat. No. 4557) has been withdrawn from sale for commercial reasons.
Description: α7 nAChR partial agonist
Alternative Names: DMXBA
Chemical Name: 3-[(2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2,3'-bipyridine dihydrochloride
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Literature (3)

Biological Activity for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

GTS 21 dihydrochloride is a partial agonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs); also a weak α4β2 and 5-HT3 antagonist at micromolar concentrations. Exhibits improved sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice following both acute and chronic administration. Also shown to improve memory in several animal models; facilitates hippocampal long-term potentiation. Also has anti-inflammatory effects independent of α7 nAChRs.

Technical Data for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

M. Wt 381.3
Formula C19H20N2O2.2HCl
Storage Store at -20°C
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 156223-05-1
PubChem ID 122225
Smiles COC(C=C3OC)=CC=C3\C=C1C(C2=CC=CN=C2)=NCCC/1.Cl.Cl

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Product Datasheets for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Stevens et al (2010) Continuous administration of a selective alpha7 nicotinic partial agonist, DMXBA, improves sensory inhibition without causing tachyphylaxis or receptor upregulation in DBA/2 mice. Brain.Res. 1352 140 PMID: 20599427

Meyer et al (1994) Effects of anabaseine-related analogs on rat brain nicotinic receptor binding and on avoidance behaviors. Drug Dev.Res. 31 127

Olincy et al (2012) Nicotinic mechanisms in the treatment of psychotic disorders: a focus on the a7 nicotinic receptor. Handb.Exp.Pharmacol. 213 211 PMID: 23027417

Garg and Loring et al (2019) GTS-21 has cell-specific anti-inflammatory effects independent of a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PLoS One 14 e0214942 PMID: 30947238

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Citations for GTS 21 dihydrochloride

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Literature in this Area

Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Nicotinic ACh Receptors Scientific Review

Nicotinic ACh Receptors Scientific Review

Updated in 2014, this review by Sue Wonnacott summarizes the diverse structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gives an in-depth review of the ligands available for nAChR research. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

Alzheimer's Disease Poster

Alzheimer's Disease Poster

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating and progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 30% of individuals aged over 85 years. This poster summarizes the cellular and molecular mechanisms of AD.

Learning & Memory Poster

Learning & Memory Poster

Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.