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Biological Activity for Dihydrokainic acid
Dihydrokainic acid is a selective EAAT2(GLT1) non-transportable inhibitor of L-glutamate and L-aspartate uptake (Ki = 23 μM). Dihydrokainic acid is 130-fold selective over EAAT1 and EAAT3 (Ki > 3 mM). In [3H]-d-Asp uptake assays in HEK293 cells expressing human EAAT2, EAAT1 and EAAT3, Ki values are 89 μM, > 3 mM and > 3 mM, respectively. Respective Km values in a FLIPR Membrane Potential (FMP) assay, are 31 μM, > 3 mM and > 3 mM
Technical Data for Dihydrokainic acid
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Dihydrokainic acid
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Dihydrokainic acid
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 215.25. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.25 mM||18.58 mL||92.92 mL||185.83 mL|
|1.25 mM||3.72 mL||18.58 mL||37.17 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.86 mL||9.29 mL||18.58 mL|
|12.5 mM||0.37 mL||1.86 mL||3.72 mL|
Product Datasheets for Dihydrokainic acid
References for Dihydrokainic acid
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Arriza et al (1994) Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex. J.Neurosci. 14 5559 PMID: 7521911
Kanal et al (1994) The neuronal and epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, insights into structure and mechanism of transport. J.Biol.Chem. 269 20599 PMID: 7914198
Munoz et al (1987) Effects of dihydrokainic acid on extracellular amino acids and neuronal excitability in the in vivo rat hippocampus. Neuropharmacology 26 1 PMID: 2882438
Jensen and Bräuner-Osborne (2004) Pharmacological characterization of human excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay. Biochem.Pharmacol. 67 2115 PMID: 15135308
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Keywords: Dihydrokainic acid, Dihydrokainic acid supplier, EAAT2, GLT-1-selective, non-transportable, inhibitors, inhibits, L-glutamate, L-aspartate, uptake, Excitatory, Amino, Acid, Transporters, Monoamine, Neurotransmitter, Glutamate, 0111, Tocris Bioscience
16 Citations for Dihydrokainic acid
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Dihydrokainic acid include:
Gasull-Camôs et al (2018) Serotonergic mechanisms involved in antidepressant-like responses evoked by GLT-1 blockade in rat infralimbic cortex. Neuropharmacology 139 41 PMID: 29940206
Foran et al (2014) Sumoylation of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 governs its intracellular compartmentalization. Glia 62 1241 PMID: 24753081
Mulholland et al (2009) Ethanol disrupts NMDA receptor and astroglial EAAT2 modulation of Kv2.1 potassium channels in hippocampus. Alcohol 43 45 PMID: 19185209
Weller et al (2008) Selective overexpression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) in astrocytes enhances neuroprotection from moderate but not severe hypoxia-ischemia. Neuroscience 155 1204 PMID: 18620031
Baltan et al (2008) White matter vulnerability to ischemic injury increases with age because of enhanced excitotoxicity. J Neurosci 28 1479 PMID: 18256269
McKeown et al (2012) Disruption of Eaat2b, a glutamate transporter, results in abnormal motor behaviors in developing zebrafish. Dev Biol 362 162 PMID: 22094018
Parri et al (2010) Sensory and cortical activation of distinct glial cell subtypes in the somatosensory thalamus of young rats. Eur J Neurosci 32 29 PMID: 20608967
Hobo et al (2011) Up-regulation of spinal glutamate transporters contributes to anti-hypersensitive effects of valproate in rats after peripheral nerve injury. Neurosci Lett 502 52 PMID: 21802494
Liang et al (2014) δ-Opioid receptors up-regulate excitatory amino acid transporters in mouse astrocytes. Br J Pharmacol 171 5417 PMID: 25052197
Tse et al (2014) Pharmacological inhibitions of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 compromise glutamate transport in photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell synapses. Vision Res 103 49 PMID: 25152321
Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. Front Cell Neurosci 8 425 PMID: 25565960
Petr et al (2015) Conditional deletion of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 reveals that astrocytic GLT-1 protects against fatal epilepsy while neuronal GLT-1 contributes significantly to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes. J Neurosci 35 5187 PMID: 25834045
Pál et al (2015) Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity. Mol Brain 8 35 PMID: 26043770
David et al (2009) Astrocytic dysfunction in epileptogenesis: consequence of altered potassium and glutamate homeostasis? J Neurosci 29 10588 PMID: 19710312
Chu et al (2007) Pharmacological Induction of Ischemic Tolerance by Glutamate Transporter-1 (EAAT2) Upregulation. Stroke 38 177 PMID: 17122424
Romanos et al (2019) Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation. Commun Biol 2 127 PMID: 30963115
Do you know of a great paper that uses Dihydrokainic acid from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for Dihydrokainic acid
Average Rating: 5 (Based on 1 Review.)
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We performed ex-vivo slice physiology on Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) slices. We bath applied DHK (300 micromolar) on a BNST neuron in the current-clamp mode. DHK depolarized the neuron and the drug effect washed out.
Literature in this Area
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