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EAAT2(GLT1)-selective non-transportable inhibitor of L-glutamate and L-aspartate uptake (Ki = 23 μM). 130-fold selective over EAAT1 and EAAT3 (Ki > 3 mM). Also available as part of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter Inhibitor Tocriset™.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 215.25. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.25 mM||18.58 mL||92.92 mL||185.83 mL|
|1.25 mM||3.72 mL||18.58 mL||37.17 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.86 mL||9.29 mL||18.58 mL|
|12.5 mM||0.37 mL||1.86 mL||3.72 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Arriza et al (1994) Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex. J.Neurosci. 14 5559 PMID: 7521911
Kanal et al (1994) The neuronal and epithelial high affinity glutamate transporter, insights into structure and mechanism of transport. J.Biol.Chem. 269 20599 PMID: 7914198
Munoz et al (1987) Effects of dihydrokainic acid on extracellular amino acids and neuronal excitability in the in vivo rat hippocampus. Neuropharmacology 26 1 PMID: 2882438
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Keywords: Dihydrokainic acid, Dihydrokainic acid supplier, EAAT2, GLT-1-selective, non-transportable, inhibitors, inhibits, L-glutamate, L-aspartate, uptake, Excitatory, Amino, Acid, Transporters, Monoamine, Neurotransmitter, Glutamate, 0111, Tocris Bioscience
16 Citations for Dihydrokainic acid
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Dihydrokainic acid include:
Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. Front Cell Neurosci 8 425 PMID: 25565960
Petr et al (2015) Conditional deletion of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 reveals that astrocytic GLT-1 protects against fatal epilepsy while neuronal GLT-1 contributes significantly to glutamate uptake into synaptosomes. J Neurosci 35 5187 PMID: 25834045
Pál et al (2015) Appearance of fast astrocytic component in voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neural activity. Mol Brain 8 35 PMID: 26043770
Liang et al (2014) δ-Opioid receptors up-regulate excitatory amino acid transporters in mouse astrocytes. Br J Pharmacol 171 5417 PMID: 25052197
Tse et al (2014) Pharmacological inhibitions of glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2 compromise glutamate transport in photoreceptor to ON-bipolar cell synapses. Vision Res 103 49 PMID: 25152321
Romanos et al (2019) Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation. Commun Biol 2 127 PMID: 30963115
David et al (2009) Astrocytic dysfunction in epileptogenesis: consequence of altered potassium and glutamate homeostasis? J Neurosci 29 10588 PMID: 19710312
Mulholland et al (2009) Ethanol disrupts NMDA receptor and astroglial EAAT2 modulation of Kv2.1 potassium channels in hippocampus. Alcohol 43 45 PMID: 19185209
Baltan et al (2008) White matter vulnerability to ischemic injury increases with age because of enhanced excitotoxicity. J Neurosci 28 1479 PMID: 18256269
Weller et al (2008) Selective overexpression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) in astrocytes enhances neuroprotection from moderate but not severe hypoxia-ischemia. Neuroscience 155 1204 PMID: 18620031
Foran et al (2014) Sumoylation of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 governs its intracellular compartmentalization. Glia 62 1241 PMID: 24753081
McKeown et al (2012) Disruption of Eaat2b, a glutamate transporter, results in abnormal motor behaviors in developing zebrafish. Dev Biol 362 162 PMID: 22094018
Hobo et al (2011) Up-regulation of spinal glutamate transporters contributes to anti-hypersensitive effects of valproate in rats after peripheral nerve injury. Neurosci Lett 502 52 PMID: 21802494
Gasull-Camôs et al (2018) Serotonergic mechanisms involved in antidepressant-like responses evoked by GLT-1 blockade in rat infralimbic cortex. Neuropharmacology 139 41 PMID: 29940206
Parri et al (2010) Sensory and cortical activation of distinct glial cell subtypes in the somatosensory thalamus of young rats. Eur J Neurosci 32 29 PMID: 20608967
Chu et al (2007) Pharmacological Induction of Ischemic Tolerance by Glutamate Transporter-1 (EAAT2) Upregulation. Stroke 38 177 PMID: 17122424
Do you know of a great paper that uses Dihydrokainic acid from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for Dihydrokainic acid
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We performed ex-vivo slice physiology on Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) slices. We bath applied DHK (300 micromolar) on a BNST neuron in the current-clamp mode. DHK depolarized the neuron and the drug effect washed out.
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Huntington's Disease Poster
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by the prevalent loss of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the striatum. This poster summarizes the MSN intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the pathology of HD, as well as highlighting the use of iPSCs for HD modeling.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.