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Biological Activity for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide is a selective catecholaminergic neurotoxin. Depletes brain catecholamine levels via uptake and accumulation by a transport mechanism specific to these neurons. Causes almost complete destruction of nigral dopaminergic neurons and their striatal terminals when injected into the substantia nigra of rats, producing an animal model of Parkinson's disease.
Technical Data for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
|Storage||Desiccate at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 250.09. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||4 mL||19.99 mL||39.99 mL|
|5 mM||0.8 mL||4 mL||8 mL|
|10 mM||0.4 mL||2 mL||4 mL|
|50 mM||0.08 mL||0.4 mL||0.8 mL|
Product Datasheets for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
References for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Breese and Traylor (1970) Effect of 6-hydroxyDA on brain NE and DA: evidence for selective degeneration of catecholamine neurons. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 174 413 PMID: 5456173
Soto-Otero et al (2000) Autoxidation and neurotoxicity of 6-hydroxyDA in the presence of some antioxidants: potential implication in relation to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. J.Neurochem. 74 1605 PMID: 10737618
Fujita et al (2006) Cell-permeable cAMP analog suppresses 6-hydroxyDA-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through the activation of the Akt pathway. Brain Res. 1113 10 PMID: 16945353
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Keywords: 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide, 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide supplier, Selective, catecholaminergic, neurotoxin, Dopamine, Receptors, adrenoceptors, adrenergic, dopaminergic, neurotoxins, parkinson's, parkinsons, 6-OHDA, Dopaminergic-Related, Adrenergic, Related, Compounds, 2547, Tocris Bioscience
11 Citations for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide include:
Kitta et al (2012) Suppression of bladder overactivity by adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in a rat model of Parkinson disease. J Urol 187 1890 PMID: 22425056
Fan (2018) External light activates hair follicle stem cells through eyes via an ipRGC-SCN-sympathetic neural pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 115 E6880 PMID: 29959210
Reinhardt et al (2013) Derivation and expansion using only small molecules of human neural progenitors for neurodegenerative disease modeling. Neural Plast 8 e59252 PMID: 23533608
McIver et al (2019) Maladaptive Downregulation of Autonomous Subthalamic Nucleus Activity following the Loss of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Cell Rep 28 992 PMID: 31340159
Malagelada et al (2008) RTP801 is induced in Parkinson's disease and mediates neuron death by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation/activation. J Neurosci 28 14363 PMID: 19118169
Fouillet et al (2012) ER stress inhibits neuronal death by promoting autophagy. Front Med (Lausanne) 8 915 PMID: 22660271
Ray et al (2014) Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration elicited by a bacterial metabolite in a C. elegans Parkinson's model. Cell Death Dis 5 e984 PMID: 24407237
Malagelada et al (2010) Rapamycin protects against neuron death in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci 30 1166 PMID: 20089925
Chotibut et al (2017) CRO reduces L-dopa-induced dyskinesia severity in 6-hydroxyDA parkinson's disease model. Mov Disord 32 1547 PMID: 28631864
Grau and Greene (2012) Use of PC12 cells and rat superior cervical ganglion sympathetic neurons as models for neuroprotective assays relevant to Parkinson's disease. Methods Mol Biol 846 201 PMID: 22367813
Sérriàre et al (2015) Assessment of the Protection of DArgic Neurons by an α7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist, PHA 543613 Using [(18)F]LBT-999 in a Parkinson's Disease Rat Model. PLoS One 2 61 PMID: 26389120
Do you know of a great paper that uses 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide
Average Rating: 4.5 (Based on 2 Reviews.)
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I used the 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to deplete dopaminergic cells from the mouse brain, which is largely used as an experimental model of Parkinson's Disease. The 6-OHDA was injected into the mouse striatum and 21 days later we observed that the dopaminergic neurons (positive for tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence) were almost absent in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) from the 6-OHDA injected hemisphere (on the left). As a control for analytical comparisons, we also injected PBS into the contralateral hemisphere (on the right). When this neurotoxin is injected into striatum, as in this case, there is only a slight depletion of dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area (the region located into the middle of the image). The animals injected with 6-OHDA display several motor dysfunctions and are used to study the pathology and therapies for Parkinsonian symptoms.
Although 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA.HBr #2547) dissolves very well in aqueous solutions, some tips are necessary to guarantee its stability for biological experiments. 1. When calculating the 6-OHDA concentration, take in consideration that the doses that are often reported are for the free base and not for the hydrobromide (HBr) conjugated salt. Thus, in the case of 6-OHDA.HBr (#2547), the presence of HBr has to be taken into account in making the proper solution. HBr has a molecular weight of 80.91 and represents 32.352% of the 6-OHDA.HBr (#2547) molecular mass.2. Always dissolve the 6-OHDA salt in buffers containing antioxidant capacity. I suggest adding 1 mM ascorbic acid (#4055) into PBS. I know some colleagues that have used sodium metabisulfite as well with great success.3. Always make fresh solutions. The 6-OHDA solution is extremely prone to oxidation, even when resuspended in antioxidant buffers. When fresh, it looks dark red. However, it turns to brown after a few hours.4. Finally, 6-OHDA is extremely toxic. Therefore always be cautious when handling it.
Literature in this Area
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Dopamine Receptors Scientific Review
Written by Phillip Strange and revised by Kim Neve in 2013, this review summarizes the history of the dopamine receptors and provides an overview of individual receptor subtype properties, their distribution and identifies ligands which act at each receptor subtype. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.