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Enzyme-linked receptors are a group of multi-subunit transmembrane proteins that contain either intrinsic enzyme activity on their intracellular domain or associate directly with an intracellular enzyme. Upon ligand binding a conformational change is transmitted via a transmembrane helix which activates the enzyme, initiating signaling cascades.
There are five main types of enzyme-linked receptors:
Enzyme-linked receptors are the receptors for many growth factors, cytokines and hormones and have a major role in regulation of cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases are responsible for a wide array of diseases, including cancers, neurodegeneration, achondroplasia and atherosclerosis.