R&D Systems Inc. Tocris Bioscience Boston Biochem

Cell Cycle

The cell cycle consists of a regulatory network of proteins that controls the order and timing of cellular proliferation events. It is divided into four stages, G1-S-G2-M. The G1 and G2 stages stands for 'GAP 1' and 'GAP 2' respectively. The S stage stands for 'Synthesis' and is the stage when DNA replication occurs. The M stage stands for 'mitosis', and is when nuclear and cytoplasmic division occurs, halving the genome.

Products for Cell Cycle

Cell Cycle Regulation

There are three major regulatory cell cycle checkpoints - at the G1/S boundary, in the S-phase and during G2/M phases. A cell can only pass through these checkpoints in the presence of stimulatory signals and in the absence of DNA damage. If DNA damage cannot be repaired the cell is eliminated through apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), along with cyclins, are major control switches at these checkpoints. They are central to cell cycle control; their activation via cyclin mediates progression through all four phases of the cell cycle.

p53 is a protein that functions to block the cell cycle if the DNA is damaged. If the damage is severe this protein can cause apoptosis. p53 levels are increased in damaged cells, blocking the cell cycle and allowing time for DNA repair to occur.

Cell Cycle and Cancer

Mutations in proteins controlling the cell cycle can lead to uncontrolled cell division, resulting in cancer - a disease where regulation of the cell cycle goes awry and normal cell growth and behavior is lost. A p53 mutation is the most frequent mutation leading to cancer. Understanding the processes and signaling pathways involved in the cell cycle has thus become the focus of intense interest in cancer research.

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Guide

Highlights over 350 products for cancer research. Request a copy or view PDF today.

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Checkpoint Kinases & the DNA Damage Response

Written by Michelle D. Garrett and Ian Collins

Cell Cycle Kinases Poster

A summary of the response of the checkpoint kinase signaling network to DNA damage, including activation of DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis.

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The p53 Tumor Suppressor Response

Written by Christopher J. Brown et al

p53 Poster

A summary of the main strategies that may be utilized to reactivate p53 including several small molecules and peptides which act to stabilize p53 and rescue wild-type activity.

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New Product Guide


Highlights 150 new products added in the second half of 2014. View PDF today.

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