PPAR Receptor Data

Receptor Subtype PPARα PPARδ PPARγ
Primary Distribution Liver, adipose tissue, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, large intestine Ubiquitous Adipose tissue, lymphoid tissue, colon, liver, heart
Tissue Function Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, lipoprotein assembly Placental and gut development, fatty acid oxidation, adaptive thermogenesis, control of cell proliferation and differentiation, tissue repair Adipocyte differentiation, glucose homeostasis
Human Disease Relevance Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Obesity and insulin resistance, type II diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer

Key Compounds Ki Values (nM)
Agonists Ciglitazone (1307)
Clofibrate (0824)
GW 0742 (2229)
GW 7647 (1677)
GW 1929 (1664)
L-165,041 (1856)
WY 14643 (1312)
> 1000*
50
1.1
0.006
> 10
10
5
> 1000*
> 100
0.001
6.2
> 10
0.53
60
3*
~ 500
2
1.1
0.0062
5.5
35
Antagonists BADGE (1326)
GW 9662 (1508)
>> 100
0.032
> 100
2
~ 100
0.0033

Potency values for PPAR ligands acting at human subtypes, unless otherwise stated. For full experimental details, please refer to the cited publications.

* Measured at murine receptors.

References

Nuclear Receptors Nomenclature Committee (1999) A unified nomenclature system for the nuclear receptor superfamily. Cell 97 161. Willson et al (1996) The structure-activity relationship between peroxisome proliferator receptor γ agonism and the antihyperglycemic activity of thiazolidinediones. J.Med.Chem. 39 665. Willson et al (2000) The PPARs: from orphan receptors to drug discovery. J.Med.Chem. 43 527. Brown et al (2001) Identifi cation of a subtype selective human PPARα agonist through parallel-array synthesis. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 11 1225. Wright et al (2000) A synthetic antagonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ inhibits adipocyte differentiation. J.Biol.Chem. 275 1873. Leesnitzer et al (2002) Functional consequences of cysteine modifi cation in the ligand binding sites of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors by GW9662. Biochemistry 41 6640. Sznaidman et al (2003) Novel selective small molecule agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) - Synthesis and biological activity. Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett. 13 1517.