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"" has 802 results in Targets.

Δ7-Dehydrocholesterol Reductase

Δ7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR) is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the final step of cholesterol biosynthesis (the reduction of the C7-8 double bond in 7-dehydrocholesterol to form cholesterol), using NADPH as a cofactor. DHCR is ubiquitously expressed.

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β-catenin

β-catenin protein is an integral part of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt binding to Frizzled (Fz) receptors and LRP co-receptors activates Dishevelled (Dsh) proteins; these in turn inhibit the destruction complex responsible for degrading β-catenin, which includes GSK-3.

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δ Opioid Receptors

The δ opioid receptor (also known as OP1, DOP, DOR) is a member of the opioid family of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes μ, κ and NOP receptors. In the CNS, δ opioid receptors are primarily distributed in the olfactory bulb, nucleus accumbens and neocortex.

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γ-Secretase

γ-secretase is a multi-subunit internal protease that cleaves within the transmembrane domain of its substrates. It is an integral membrane protein and minimally consists of four proteins; presenilin, nicastrin, APH-1 and PEN-2. γ-secretase is involved in the processing of Notch.

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κ Opioid Receptors

The κ opioid receptor, (also known as OP2, KOP, KOR), is a member of the opioid family of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes μ, δ and NOP receptors. Three variants of the receptor (designated κ1, κ2, and κ3) have been characterized.

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μ Opioid Receptors

The μ opioid receptor, (also known as OP3, MOP, MOR), is a member of the opioid family of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes κ, δ and NOP receptors. Three splice variants of the receptor (designated μ1, μ2 and μ3) have been characterized.

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σ1 Receptors

σ1 receptors are members of the σ family of receptors that also includes σ2 receptors. They are distinguished from σ2 receptors as they have high affinity and stereoselectivity for the (+)-isomers of pentazocine, SK&F 10047 and cyclazocine, and different subcellular localizations.

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σ2 Receptors

σ2 receptors are members of the sigma (σ) family of receptors that also includes σ1 receptors. Originally thought to be opioid receptors or the phencyclidine binding site on the NMDA receptor, more recently σ2 receptors have been identified as the endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein, TMEM97.

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11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) isozymes 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 catalyze the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. 11β-HSD1 converts cortisone to cortisol, the active hormone; and 11β-HSD2 converts cortisol to cortisone, the inactive form.

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14.3.3 Proteins

14.3.3 proteins are a group of highly conserved proteins that are involved in many vital cellular processes such as metabolism, protein trafficking, signal transduction, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. 14.3.3 proteins are phospho-serine/-threonine binding proteins.

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3C and 3CL Proteases

3C and 3C-like proteases are cysteine proteases found in positive sense RNA viruses such as coronaviruses and picornaviruses. 3CLpro from beta coronaviruses is also known as main protease, Mpro. These proteases are key components of the viral life cycle and, as such, are a potential target for the development of inhibitors to treat coronavirus infection.

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5-HT Receptors

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized from L-tryptophan in serotonergic neurons and enterochromaffin cells of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-HT acts at serotonin receptors, which have been classified into seven groups (5-HT1-7) based on their pharmacological profiles, cDNA-deduced primary sequences and signal transduction mechanisms.

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5-HT Transporters

5-HT transporters (serotonin transporters, SERT) are sodium- and chloride-dependent members of the solute carrier family 6 (SLC6) found widely distributed throughout the brain. They are responsible for re-uptake of 5-HT and undergo a conformational change to move molecules.

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5-HT1 Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors which bind the neurotransmitter serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine. Five subtypes have been identified (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-ht1E and 5-HT1F), all of which are G-protein-coupled receptors that couple to Gi/o causing a decrease in cAMP levels.

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5-HT1A Receptors

The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor was the first 5-HT receptor to be fully sequenced. 5-HT1A receptor binding sites are located primarily in limbic brain areas, notably the hypothalamus and cortical areas. The human gene encoding this receptor has been localized to chromosome 5.

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5-HT1B Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors, previously known as 5-HT1D receptors, are primarily located in the basal ganglia, striatum, hippocampus and vascular smooth muscle. 5-HT1B receptors play a role in thermoregulation, respiration, appetite control, sexual behavior and aggression.

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5-HT1D Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT1D receptors, previously known as 5-HT1Dα receptors, are located primarily in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, cortex, spinal cord and vascular smooth muscle cells. 5-HT1D receptors are thought to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression.

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5-HT1F Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT1F receptors, previously known as 5-HT1Eβ receptors, are located primarily in the hippocampus, cortex and dorsal raphe nucleus. The human 5-HT1F receptor is closely related to the 5-ht1E receptor and its gene has been localized to chromosome 3 (3q11).

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5-HT2 Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors which bind the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Three subtypes have been identified: 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C.

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5-HT2A Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, previously known as 5-HT2 receptors, are located primarily in the neocortex, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle cells. 5-HT2A receptors play a role in the control of appetite.

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5-HT2B Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT2B receptors, previously known as 5-HT2F receptors, are located primarily in the stomach fundus, uterus, vascular endothelial and vascular and GI smooth muscle, with limited distribution in the brain. 5-HT2B overexpression leads to ventricular hypertrophy.

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5-HT2C Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT2C receptors, previously known as 5-HT1C receptors, are located primarily in the choroid plexus, cortex, limbic system and basal ganglia. 5-HT2C receptors play a role in CSF volume regulation, thermoregulation, penile erection and anxiety.

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5-HT3 Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT3 receptors, are ligand-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop family. The receptor consists of four transmembrane domains that form an intrinsic cation-selective channel. So far five human 5-HT3 receptor subtypes have been identified (5-HT3A-E).

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5-HT4 Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT4 receptors are located primarily in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems and smooth muscle. The receptor plays a role in memory and learning, anxiety, visual perception and smooth muscle relaxation.

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5-HT6 Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT6 receptors are located primarily in the striatum, olfactory tubercles, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. Functions of 5-HT6 receptors include modulation of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, and a role in spatial learning and memory.

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5-HT7 Receptors

Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors are located primarily in the thalamus, hypothalamus and hippocampus. The function of these receptors includes the regulation of circadian rhythms, thermoregulation, learning and memory and smooth muscle relaxation.

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5-ht1E Receptors

Serotonin 5-ht1E receptors are primarily located in the frontal cortex, caudate putamen, claustrum, hippocampus, and amygdala. The human 5-ht1E receptor gene has been localized to chromosome 6 (6q14-q15); the receptor is closely related to the serotonin 5-HT1F receptor.

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5-ht5 Receptors

Serotonin 5-ht5 receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that preferentially couple to Gs and promote cAMP formation. Two 5-ht5 receptor subtypes (5-ht5a and 5-ht5b) have been found in rodents, but a functional transcript has not been identified in humans.

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A-Kinase-Anchoring Proteins

A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a group of proteins, which bind the regulatory subunits (RI and RII) of protein kinase A (PKA), anchoring it to specific locations within the cell. AKAPs play a central role in the regulation of signal transduction.

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ACE2

ACE2 is a single-pass, transmembrane protease enzyme that has high homology with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is the host cell receptor for several coronaviruses but also plays a role in the renin-angiotensin system where it inactivates angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin 1-7.

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ADAMs

ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) are a family of transmembrane metalloproteinases that function as proteases and/or adhesion molecules. They are members of the M12B adamalysin protease subfamily, which also includes reprolysins and ADAMTs.

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ALK

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that was first identified in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) as part of the fusion protein NPM-ALK. ALK has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many types of cancer.

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AMPA Receptors

AMPA receptors are members of the ionotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes NMDA and Kainate receptors. AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and play a role in hippocampal synaptic long-term potentiation and depression.

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AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterodimeric protein serine/threonine kinase that is composed of α- (catalytic) and β/γ- (regulatory) subunits. AMPK acts as a sensor of the energy status of cells and ensures survival during times of cellular metabolic stress.

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AP-1

Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) is a collective term referring to dimeric transcription factors composed of Jun, Fos, Jun-dimerization partners or ATF subunits. They bind to AP-1 DNA recognition elements known as TREs and control cell proliferation, transformation, survival and death.

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ASK1

Apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (ASK1) is a serine/threonine kinase, MAP3K family member, which induces apoptosis through the activation of JNK and p38. ASK1 has been implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative and oxidative stress-related diseases.

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ATM and ATR Kinases

ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) are closely related kinases that are activated by DNA damage. They are serine-threonine protein kinases which are part of the phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase-like kinase (PIKK) enzyme family.

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ATP Citrate Lyase

ATP citrate lyase (ATP citrate synthase, ACLY) is a transferase that catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA. ACLY is the key regulator between the high rates of aerobic glycolysis and de novo lipid synthesis exhibited in many types of tumor cells.

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ATPases

ATPases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phosphate bond in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP). They harness the energy released from the breakdown of the phosphate bond and utilize it to perform other cellular reactions. ATPases are essential enzymes in all known forms of life and have fundamental roles in energy conservation, active transport and pH homeostasis.

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Abl Kinase

The Abl family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases includes c-Abl (Abelson tyrosine kinase) and Arg (Abl2) subtypes. c-Abl is localized at many subcellular sites including the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, where it interacts with several proteins.

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Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptors

Muscarinic receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and control distinct functions according to location and subtype (M1 - M5).They are predominantly expressed in the parasympathetic nervous system where they exert both inhibitory and excitatory effects.

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Acetylcholine Nicotinic Receptors

Nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that modulate cell membrane potentials. Each receptor is composed of pentameric combinations of subunits (α1-10, β1-4, δ, ε and γ). Nicotinic receptors are generally divided into three functional classes: muscle subunits (α1, β1, δ, ε, γ), standard neuronal subunits (α1-6 and β2-4) that form in pairwise αβ combinations, and subunits (α7-9) that can form homomeric nAChRs. Neuronal nicotinic receptors are found in the central nervous system and in autonomic ganglia where they regulate processes such as transmitter release, cell excitability and neuronal integration. Nicotinic receptors located at the neuromuscular junctions of somatic muscles are responsible for muscular contraction.

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Acetylcholine Transporters

Vesicular acetylcholine transporters (VAChTs) are members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) of ATP-dependent transporters that also includes vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) 1 and VMAT2. VAChT is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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Acid-Sensing Ion Channels

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) are members of the ENaC/Deg (epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin) family of ion channels and are widely expressed in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system.

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Ack1

Activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (Ack1, E.C. 2.7.10.2), also known as TNK2, is a 114 kDa member of the Ack family of mammalian non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) which is activated by multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) to perform various roles within the cell.

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Actin

Actin is a ubiquitous globular protein that is one of the most highly-conserved proteins known. It is found in two main states: G-actin is the globular monomeric form, whereas F-actin forms helical polymers. Both G- and F-actin are intrinsically flexible structures.

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Active Degraders

Degraders (e.g.PROTAC® molecules, SNIPERs etc), are a new approach for the knockdown of target proteins within cells. Comprising binding moieties for an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a target protein joined by a linker, these hybrid molecules induce selective, proteasome-dependent degradation of target proteins and can be used to investigate downstream effects of protein knockdown or to interfere with specific signaling pathways.

PROTAC® is a registered trademark of Arvinas Operations, Inc., and is used under license.

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Acyl-CoA:Cholesterol Acyltransferase

Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs), EC 2.3.1.38, are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the conversion of cholesterol to cholesteryl esters. ACATs have been implicated in the pathology of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

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Addiction Research

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), addiction is 'a chronic disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by a loss of control over impulsive behavior that leads to compulsive drug seeking and taking, and to relapses even after months of abstinence'. Addiction is a complex neuroadaptive process, where drugs of abuse alter cellular and molecular aspects of neural function. The brain circuits mediating the various behavioral effects of these drugs are rendered more, or less, responsive to those effects.

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Adenine Receptors

The adenine receptor is a putative G-protein-coupled receptor thought to be involved in purinergic signalling. Reflecting the existing nomenclature of this family, a proposed classification of 'P0 receptor' has been suggested.

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Adenosine A1 Receptors

The A1 receptor is a member of the adenosine receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes A2A, A2B and A3. A1 receptors display high expression levels in the brain (cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus), dorsal horn of the spinal cord, eye and atria.

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Adenosine A2A Receptors

Adenosine A2A receptors are members of the adenosine receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes A1, A2B and A3. A2A receptors display high expression levels in the spleen, thymus, leukocytes, blood platelets and the olfactory bulb.

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Adenosine A2B Receptors

Adenosine A2B receptors are members of the adenosine receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes A1, A2A and A3. A2B receptors display high expression levels in the cecum, colon and bladder, with lower levels in the lung, blood vessels and eye.

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Adenosine A3 Receptors

The adenosine A3 receptor is a member of the adenosine receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes A1, A2A and A2B. They display high expression levels in the testes and mast cells of rats, with low expression levels in the thyroid, liver, kidney and heart.

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Adenosine Kinase

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a highly conserved monomeric enzyme that constitutes the primary route of adenosine metabolism under normal conditions. ADK decreases intracellular adenosine levels by catalyzing its conversion into AMP and ADP, using ATP as a phosphate donor.

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Adenosine Receptors

Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside that is present in all body fluids where it predominantly exhibits a cytoprotective function. Four adenosine receptors (P1 purinergic receptors) have been cloned from several mammalian species and have been classified as A1, A2A, A2B and A3.

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Adenylyl Cyclases

Adenylyl Cyclases (AC) are a group of enzymes that convert adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) into 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP/cAMP) and pyrophosphate. There are ten different mammalian isoforms of adenylyl cylase; nine of which are membrane-bound.

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Adrenergic α1 Receptors

Adrenergic α1 receptors (α1-adrenoceptors) are members of the adrenergic receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes α2A, α2B, α2C, β1, β2 and β3. The adrenergic α1 receptors are further divided into three subtypes: α1A, α1B and α1D receptors.

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Adrenergic α2 Receptors

Adrenergic α2 receptors (α2-adrenoceptors) are members of the adrenergic receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes α1A, α1B, α1D, β1, β2 and β3. Adrenergic α2 receptors are divided into three subtypes in humans: α2A, α2B and α2C.

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Adrenergic β1 Receptors

The adrenergic β1 receptor (β1-adrenoceptor) is a member of the adrenergic receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes α1A, α1B, α1D, α2A, α2B, α2C, β2 and β3. They are located primarily in the CNS, heart, coronary artery, kidney and muscle.

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Adrenergic β2 Receptors

The adrenergic β2 receptor (β2-adrenoceptor) is a member of the adrenergic receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes α1A, α1B, α1D, α2A, α2B, α2C, β1 and β3. They are located primarily in the CNS, heart, kidney and muscle.

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Adrenergic β3 Receptors

The adrenergic β3 receptor (β3-adrenoceptor) is a member of the adrenergic receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes α1A, α1B, α1D, α2A, α2B, α2C, β1 and β2. They are located primarily in the small intestine, adipose tissue and vascular endothelium.

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Adrenergic Receptors

Adrenergic receptors (adrenoceptors) are classified into two main groups, α and β. The α group has been further divided into α1 and α2 which are, in turn, subdivided into α1A, α1B, α1D and α2A, α2B and α2C respectively. β-Adrenoceptors are currently classified into β1, β2 and β3 subgroups with a putative β4 receptor, as yet uncloned but exhibiting a distinct pharmacological profile.

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Adrenergic Transporters

Adrenergic transporters (NET) are sodium- and chloride-dependent members of the solute carrier family 6 (SLC6) widely distributed throughout the brain within noradrenergic neuronal plasma membranes. They are responsible for re-uptake of adrenalin and noradrenalin.

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Akt (Protein Kinase B)

Akt (Protein kinase B, PKB) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key in regulating cell survival, angiogenesis and tumor formation. Akt is a downstream mediator of the PI 3-K pathway, which results in the recruitment of Akt to the plasma membrane.

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Alcohol Dehydrogenases

Mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases are a family of enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of alcohols into aldehyde or ketones, with the aid of a co-enzyme, NAD+. In humans, there are five classes (I-V) of alcohol dehydrogenases, encoded by at least seven different genes.

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Aldehyde Dehydrogenases

Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes oxidize aldehydes to generate carboxylic acids for use in the muscle and heart. Numerous aldehyde dehydrogenase genes exist, of which ALDH2 is best known for its role in alcohol oxidation.

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Aldose Reductase

Aldose reductase (also known as aldehyde reductase) catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols. This enzyme is cytosolic, exists as a monomer and requires NADPH as a co-factor.

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Allergy Research

Allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder characterized by an exaggerated immunologic response to an otherwise innocuous agent, called an allergen. Allergies can be caused by both host (race, gender, hereditary) and environmental factors (pollution, diet, infection).

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Alzheimer's Disease Research

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia, is an irreversible and progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing cognitive and functional impairment. It is characterized by formation of protein aggregates and progressive loss of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). The symptoms of AD include short-term memory loss, confusion, irritability, aggression and mood swings, progressing to long-term memory deficit, withdrawal from social interactions and subsequently a loss in higher central functioning.

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Aminopeptidases

Aminopeptidases catalyze the removal of amino acids from the amino terminus of proteins and peptides. They express different substrate specificities - for example, leucyl aminopeptidase preferentially cleaves leucine residues.

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Amyloid β Peptides

Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are the major component of amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Aβ is formed from the progressive cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase. Two Aβ peptides are formed from APP degradation.

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Ancillary Material Grade Small Molecules

The Ancillary Material (or AM) Grade range of small molecules has been developed by Tocris for use as ancillary reagents or raw materials in the manufacture of cell therapies. These products are manufactured with additional levels of control compared to our standard catalog (research use only or RUO) product range to ensure the safety of your cell therapy product.

To view Bio-Techne's complete solutions for Cell and Gene Therapy manufacturing, please visit bio-techne.com.

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Androgen Receptors

Androgen receptors (ARs) (dihydrotestosterone receptors) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR3C class, which includes mineralocorticoid, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. ARs are expressed in bone marrow, mammary gland and prostate tissues.

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Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis (also known as neovascularization) is the generation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. It is a normal process in growth and development and is required for the formation of arteries, veins, and capillaries in an embryo.

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Angiotensin AT1 Receptors

The angiotensin1 receptor (AT1) is a member of the angiotensin group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes AT2 and AT4. They are located primarily in the liver, kidney, adrenal gland and lung. AT1 receptors preferentially bind angiotensin II.

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Angiotensin AT2 Receptors

The angiotensin2 receptor (AT2) is a member of the angiotensin receptor group of G-protein-coupled receptors that also includes AT1 and AT4. They are located primarily in the brain, adrenal medulla, heart and uterus where they counterbalance the effects of AT1.

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Angiotensin Receptors

The angiotensin family of peptides is important in the regulation of blood volume, vascular resistance and electrolyte balance. Angiotensin II, the main peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, produces a variety of physiological effects. It is produced in a cascade whereby the precursor peptide angiotensinogen is cleaved to produce renin and angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme then acts on angiotensin I to yield the octapeptide angiotensin II, and further processing generates angiotensin III and IV. These peptides act on three angiotensin receptor subtypes, AT1, AT2 and AT4, the properties of which are summarized below. The actions of angiotensin II are primarily mediated by AT1, whereas AT2 preferentially binds angiotensin III and AT4 is selective for angiotensin IV.

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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; also known as peptidyl dipeptidase A or carboxycathepsin) is a central component of the Renin-Angiotensin System, where the enzyme cleaves angiotensin I to release the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. The ACE2 homolog inactivates angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin 1-7. ACE2 is also suggested to be the host cell receptor for coronaviruses.

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Antiangiogenics

Antiangiogenic agents are compounds which prevent angiogenesis in vitro and/or in vivo. Angiogenesis inhibitors may be endogenous or synthetic; others are obtained from diet, for example resveratrol.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics are compounds used to treat or prevent bacterial infections by killing or inhibiting growth of bacteria. They are also used in cell culture to prevent contamination, particularly by Mycoplasma species. Antibiotics may be chemically synthesized or isolated from natural sources, such as fungi.

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Antifade Reagents

Antifade Reagents provide protection against fading or photobleaching for most common fluorophores used in live and fixed cell fluorescent imaging.

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Antifungals

Antifungals (also known as antimycotics) are a pharmacologically diverse group of compounds used to treat mycoses (fungal infections) in humans and animals. They may also be used in cell culture to prevent contamination. Most antimycotic products act by interfering with the integrity of the fungal cell membrane or cell wall.

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Antimalarials

Antimalarials are used to treat malaria, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Plasmodium genus, which are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. Most of these compounds target the erythrocytic stage of the infection. Quinoline derivatives such as a chloroquine and mefloquine act by accumulating in the parasite food vacuole and inhibiting the biocrystallization of hemozoin, a breakdown product of hemoglobin, resulting in accumulation of cytotoxic heme. The action of Artemisinin, a Chinese herb, and its derivatives appears to involve the heme-mediated cleavage of endoperoxide bridges to produce free radicals.

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Antivirals

Antivirals are drugs that inhibit viral infection, targeting virus entry, assembly or replication. Mechanisms of antiviral action include blocking virus replication at key points, such as interfering with DNA polymerization or protease inhibition. They are used to treat viral infections such as HIV and CMV.

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Apelin Receptors

The Apelin (APJ) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor for which Apelin-36, apelin-13 and [Pyr1]-apelin-13 are the predominant endogenous ligands. Elabela (ELA; also known as Toddler) has been proposed as another endogenous ligand for this receptor. The APJ receptor mediates cardiovascular function, fluid homeostasis and adipocyte endocrine secretion.

To view Bio-Techne's complete solutions for lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and energy balance, please visit our metabolism page on bio-techne.com.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a mechanism of cell death that occurs after sufficient cellular damage. It occurs normally during development and aging and is considered a vital component of cell turnover, cell development and function of the immune system. It occurs as a defense mechanism such as in immune reactions or when cells are damaged by disease or noxious agents.

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Apoptosis Inducers

Apoptosis inducers exhibit pro-apoptotic effects through a variety of mechanisms, including DNA cross-linking, inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins and activation of caspases. These inducers may target a specific cellular process in order to induce antitumor or antineoplastic effects.

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Aptamer-based RNA Imaging

Light-up aptamers or Fluorescent light-up aptamers (FLAPs) are a genetically-encoded RNA imaging platform. They are designed to bind specific fluorogenic dyes that 'light-up' only in the bound state. This property of 'fluorogenicity' means that fluorescence can be 'switched on' upon RNA expression. Light-up aptamers can be thought of as the RNA counterpart to fluorescent proteins, such as GFP. Commonly used light-up aptamers include Spinach, Mango, Corn and Broccoli, named for their vibrant colors.

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Aptamers

Aptamers are short, single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules that bind with high selectivity and affinity to a target of interest. They are highly versatile and are used as molecular tools in life science research, therapeutics or diagnostics.

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Aquaporins

Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water across biological membranes along an osmotic gradient. There have been 13 AQP isoforms (AQP0-AQP12) identified in humans and rodents to date.

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Arf GTPases

Arf GTPases regulate vesicle trafficking, budding and tethering, and cytoskeleton organization. The family contains Class I, II and III Arfs, as well as related GTPases. Aberrant activity and expression of specific family members has been linked to cancer progression and tumor invasion and proliferation.

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