Chemiluminescent Substrates

One type of Chemiluminescence is Bioluminescence, where the production and emission of light occurs within a living organism. Bioluminescent substrates are commonly utilized for non-invasive monitoring of biological processes.

Products
Background
Literature
Cat No Product Name / Activity
5427 D-Luciferin sodium salt
Firefly luciferase substrate; cell permeable.
6555 TokeOni
NIR-emission luciferin analog; orally bioavailable and brain penetrant

Luminescence is the spontaneous emission of light caused by chemical reactions, electrical energy and subatomic motion. Luminescent substrates are commonly utilized for non-invasive monitoring of biological processes.

There are multiple types of luminescence, including Chemiluminescence and Photoluminescence. One type of Chemiluminescence is Bioluminescence; the production and emission of light within a living organism. Bioluminescence occurs in multiple organisms, including fungi and bacteria, as well as a whole host of marine animals, including angler fish. One of the most famous examples of bioluminescence is that produced by the firefly.

Bioluminescence involves a reaction between the oxidative enzyme luciferase, and a light-emitting molecule, luciferin. Luciferins are oxidized by luciferase and the resulting excited state intermediate emits light as it returns to its ground state. Luciferin and Luciferases are widely used in biotechnology as reporter genes, and in fluorescent microscopy. Also techniques such as bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT), utilize bioluminescence for noninvasive in vivo studies.

Fluorescence and phosphorescence are types of Photoluminescence. Fluorescence occurs when light is absorbed at a high energy state then emitted at a longer wavelength, with lower energy. As a result, fluorescence microscopy lends itself to application such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), where energy is transferred between molecules with complementary emission absorption spectra. This has been exploited by scientists investigating intramolecular movements of proteins, such as GPCRs. Fluorescent reactions tend to last nanoseconds, whereas phosphorescence can last from milliseconds to hours, as it does not immediately re-emit all the radiation it absorbs. Phosphorescence material is used for glow in the dark applications.

Literature for Chemiluminescent Substrates

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Chemiluminescent Substrates to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.


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New Product Guide (Fall/Winter 2018/2019)

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