Estrogen and Related Receptors
Estrogen controls many cellular processes including growth, differentiation and function of the reproductive system. In females, estrogen's main targets are the ovaries, uterus, vagina and mammary glands. In the male, target organs are the testes, prostate and epididymis. Estrogen is also responsible for the growth and maintenance of the skeleton and the normal functioning of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
Estrogen exerts most of its actions via estrogen receptors (ER). Estrogen receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily.
Today, two estrogen receptors are known, ERα and ERβ. ERα protein is highly homologous to ERβ protein, especially in the DNA and ligand binding domains, although divergence exists in the N-terminal transactivation domain. Both receptors interact with the same DNA response element and show a similar ligand binding profile. Upon ligand binding estrogen receptors undergo a conformational change allowing spontaneous dimerization to form either homo- or heterodimers. As a dimer, the estrogen receptor binds to the estrogen response element (ERE) in the promoter region of target genes. ERα and ERβ are present in a broad spectrum of tissues.
Three estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) - ERRα, ERRβ and ERRγ - have also been identified. Classified as 'orphan' nuclear receptors, they do not bind endogenous estrogens; instead, they are activated by co-regulatory proteins and bind the ERE and ERR response elements (ERREs) as homodimers, exerting transcriptional control of energy homeostasis. As a result, they may be useful therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, as well as cancer.
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|Gene||Species||Gene Symbol||Gene Accession No.||Protein Accession No.|
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Literature for Estrogen and Related Receptors
A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Cancer Metabolism
- Epigenetics in Cancer
- Receptor Signaling
- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
- Invasion and Metastasis
A collection of over 150 products for key nuclear receptors, the listing includes research tools for the study of:
- Androgen Receptors
- Estrogen Receptors
- Retinoic Acid Receptors
- Retinoid X Receptors
- Vitamin D Receptors
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