Androgen receptors (ARs) (also known as dihydrotestosterone receptors) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR3C class, which also includes mineralocorticoid, progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors. They are expressed in bone marrow, mammary gland, prostate, testicular and muscle tissues where they exist as dimers coupled to Hsp90 and HMGB proteins, which are shed upon ligand binding.
Activated androgen receptors bind to nuclear response elements of the genome, with an inverted palindromic 15 nucleotide sequence, to regulate gene transcription. Androgen receptors also affect gene expression through interaction with transcription factors including AP-1, NF-κB and STAT.
Target genes of androgen receptors include insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and genes involved in the development of primary and secondary male sexual characteristics, maintenance of sexual function and possibly have a causative role in aggressive behavior. Furthermore, androgen receptors have recently been shown to have actions that are independent of DNA interactions.
Congential mutations in androgen receptors are associated with androgen insensitivity syndromes, virility and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Perturbations in androgen receptor expression is also a common feature of prostate cancer. The human gene encoding the androgen receptor has been localized to Xq11-12.
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Literature for Androgen Receptors
A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Cancer Metabolism
- Epigenetics in Cancer
- Receptor Signaling
- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
- Invasion and Metastasis
A collection of over 150 products for key nuclear receptors, the listing includes research tools for the study of:
- Androgen Receptors
- Estrogen Receptors
- Retinoic Acid Receptors
- Retinoid X Receptors
- Vitamin D Receptors
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