Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes of phospholipases; phospholipase A (PLA) (E.C. 126.96.36.199), phospholipase B (E.C. 188.8.131.52), phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) (E.C. 184.108.40.206) and phospholipase D (PLD) (E.C. 220.127.116.11).
PLA is subdivided into PLA1 which cleave phospholipids at the sn-1 ester bond and PLA2, which cleave at the sn-2 bond. Their most common substrate is phosphatidylcholine, which generates lysophosphatidylcholine and arachidonic acid. PLA is regulated by phosphorylation and by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. PLC is subdivided into β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η subtypes, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 and DAG both have important second messenger functions. PLC-β is primarily activated by Gq/11 proteins and PLC-γ is activated by phosphorylation in response to a variety of growth factor and immune system signals. PLD is subdivided into PLD1 and PLD2, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid and choline. PLD is regulated by several small GTPases, including ARF1 and RhoA, and protein kinase C-α.
Phospholipases are ubiquitously expressed and have diverse biological functions including roles in inflammation, cell growth, signaling and death, and maintenance of membrane phospholipids.
To view external sources of pharmacological information for Phospholipases, please click here: BJP GuideView all products for Phospholipases »
|Gene||Species||Gene Symbol||Gene Accession No.||Protein Accession No.|
|View all Phospholipase Gene Data »|
Literature for Phospholipases
A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Cancer Metabolism
- Epigenetics in Cancer
- Receptor Signaling
- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
- Invasion and Metastasis
A collection of over 250 products for cardiovascular research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Thrombosis and Hemostasis
- Myocardial Infarction
- Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
- Heart Failure
Written by Peter Barnes, this poster highlights key pathways in the development of asthma. Special focus is given to new therapies used to treat asthma, including those currently in clinical development; treatment pathways include lipid mediator inhibitors, cytokine modulators and mast cell-directed therapies. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | View all posters
Find multiple products by catalog number
Follow @Tocris on Twitter
Tocris is now actively tweeting. For regular updates on news, events and special offers, follow @Tocris on Twitter.