Phospholipases

Supporting information

Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes of phospholipases; phospholipase A (PLA) (E.C. 3.1.1.4), phospholipase B (E.C. 3.1.1.5), phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) (E.C. 3.1.4.11) and phospholipase D (PLD) (E.C. 3.1.4.50).

PLA is subdivided into PLA1 which cleave phospholipids at the sn-1 ester bond and PLA2, which cleave at the sn-2 bond. Their most common substrate is phosphatidylcholine, which generates lysophosphatidylcholine and arachidonic acid. PLA is regulated by phosphorylation and by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. PLC is subdivided into β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η subtypes, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 and DAG both have important second messenger functions. PLC-β is primarily activated by Gq/11 proteins and PLC-γ is activated by phosphorylation in response to a variety of growth factor and immune system signals. PLD is subdivided into PLD1 and PLD2, and catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid and choline. PLD is regulated by several small GTPases, including ARF1 and RhoA, and protein kinase C-α.

Phospholipases are ubiquitously expressed and have diverse biological functions including roles in inflammation, cell growth, signaling and death, and maintenance of membrane phospholipids.

To view external sources of pharmacological information for Phospholipases, please click here: BJP Guide

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
PLA1A Human PLA1A NM_015900 Q53H76
Mouse Pla1a NM_134102 Q8VI78
Rat Pla1a NM_138882 P97535
PLA2GIB Human PLA2G1B NM_000928 P04054
Mouse Pla2g1b NM_011107 Q9Z0Y2
Rat Pla2g1b NM_031585 P04055
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Literature for Phospholipases

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Cancer Research Product Guide
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Cardiovascular Research Product Guide
Asthma Life Science Poster

Written by Peter Barnes, this poster highlights key pathways in the development of asthma. Special focus is given to new therapies used to treat asthma, including those currently in clinical development; treatment pathways include lipid mediator inhibitors, cytokine modulators and mast cell-directed therapies. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Asthma Life Science Poster

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Cardiovascular Research Product Guide

Cardiovascular Research Product Guide

Our Cardiovascular Guide highlights over 250 products for cardiovascular research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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New Therapies and Challenges in Asthma

Written by Peter J. Barnes

Asthma Life Science Poster

Our Asthma poster highlights key pathways and new therapies used to treat asthma, including those currently in clinical development. Request copy today.

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