Chloride Channels

Supporting information

Chloride channels are a family of anion-selective channels involved in a diverse range of biological processes including the regulation of the excitability of neurons, skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, cell volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport, the acidification of intra- and extracellular compartments.

There are five main subtypes of chloride channels:

  1. Voltage-sensitive ClC channels - a family of 9 (ClC-1-7, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb), each containing two independently-gated pores that are important for repolarization and stabilization of membrane potentials.
  2. Ca2+-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) - widely expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells, activated by intracellular Ca2+ and modulated by CaMKII and calcineurin
  3. High (maxi) conductance chloride channels - found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, neurons, glia, lymphocytes, epithelial cells and placental cells, with a suggested role in cell volume regulation and apoptosis
  4. Volume-regulated chloride channels (VRACs) - have a role in the regulation of volume decrease of cells in response to swelling. Also regulate membrane excitability, transcellular Cl- transport, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis.
  5. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) - a cAMP-regulated epithelial cell channel involved in fluid transport. Inhibits ENaC, CaCC and VRAC channels and activates ORCC and ROMK2 channels. Homozygous Δ508 mutation causes impaired CFTR trafficking and leads to cystic fibrosis

To view external sources of pharmacological information for Chloride Channels, please click here: BJP Guide

View all products for Chloride Channels »
Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
ClC-1 Human CLCN1 NM_000083 P35523
Mouse Clcn1 NM_013491 Q64347
Rat Clcn1 NM_013147 Q7TT77
ClC-2 Human CLCN2 NM_004366 P51788
Mouse Clcn2 NM_009900 Q9R0A1
Rat Clcn2 NM_017137 P35525
View all Chloride Channel Gene Data »

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