Stearoyl-CoA 9-Desaturase

Supporting information

Stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase (SCD-1, Δ9 desaturase), EC 1.14.19.1, is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of long-chain saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). It is important in energy expenditure, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism.

SCD-1 is expressed in most human and mouse tissues and is rate-limiting in the synthesis of MUFAs. It is an integral protein in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Two isoforms of the enzyme have been identified in humans and rats, while four isoforms have been identified in mice. The Scd-1 gene is regulated by a variety of factors, including glucose, fructose, saturated fatty acids and insulin, as well as transcription factors, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and liver X receptors. The enzyme introduces a cis double bond at the Δ9 position of MUFAs, primarily converting stearate to oleate, and palmitate to palmitoleate. MUFAs are major constituents of complex lipids, such as diacylglycerols, phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters and cholesterol esters.

SCD-1 is a target of interest in type II diabetes, obesity and other metabolic diseases. SCD-1 knockout mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and exhibit increased metabolic rate and insulin sensitivity; they also have very low triglyceride levels and specific cutaneous abnormalities. The enzyme may also have a role in aging, since levels of SCD-1 are decreased in senescent cells and in animal models of aging. Studies have also indicated a role for SCD-1 in modulation of stem cell differentiation.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Stearoyl-CoA 9 desaturase Human SCD NM_005063 O00767
Mouse Scd1 NM_009127 P13516
Rat Scd NM_139192 P07308

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