Caspases (cysteinyl aspartate proteases) are involved in the signal transduction pathways of apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. These enzymes can be divided into two major classes - initiators and effectors. The initiator isoforms (caspases-1,-4,-5,-8,-9,-10,-11,-12) are activated by, and interact with, upstream adaptor molecules through protein-protein interaction domains known as CARD and DED.
Effector caspases (-3,-6,-7) are responsible for cleaving downstream substrates and are sometimes referred to as the executioner caspases. More than 700 caspase substrates have so far been identified (see The Caspase Substrate Database).
Initiator caspases, such as caspase 8, may be directly activated by death receptors such as FasR. Caspases can also be found intracellularly as part of large multiprotein complexes. For example, caspase 9 is recruited to the apoptosome formed during apoptosis, whilst caspases-1 and 5 can form part of the inflammasome, a key part of cytokine processing during inflammation.
Caspases are regulated by inhibitors of apoptosis and by dominant negative isoforms. They have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, myocardial infarction, cancer, and inflammatory disease.View all products for Caspases »
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Literature for Caspases
A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Cancer Metabolism
- Epigenetics in Cancer
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- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
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A collection of over 275 products for neurodegeneration research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Alzheimer's disease
- Parkinson's disease
- Huntington's disease
Written by Annalena Wieland and Nicholas Allen, this poster summarizes the medium spiny neuron intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the pathology of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as highlighting the use of iPSCs for HD modeling. Compounds available from Tocris are listedRequest copy | Download PDF | View all posters
Written by Anthony H.V. Schapira, this poster summarizes the neurobiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), including new genetic insight, neurotransmitter pathways, and the role of aberrant α-synuclein metabolism in PD pathogenesis. This poster also presents new and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay the onset and progress of PD. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | Download PDF | View all posters
Written by Bram van Raam & Guy Salvesen, this poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate.Request copy | Download PDF | View all posters