MK2

Supporting information

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2; MAPKAPK2), EC 2.7.11.1, is a member of the MAPKAPK family of kinases, which also consists of MK3 and MK5 (PRAK). The MAPKAPK family are activated by MAPK signaling, with MK2 being a downstream substrate of p38.

MK2 is ubiquitously expressed, with its highest expression in the heart, kidney and skeletal muscle. In quiescent cells MK2 is predominantly localized to the nucleus. In response to stress stimuli (such as UV irradiation, heat shock and oxidative stress), as well as LPS and Toll-like receptor signaling, p38 is activated and subsequently phosphorylates MK2, which is exported from the nucleus into the cells cytoplasm. Substrates for MK2 include AU-rich element-binding (ARE) proteins; the chaperone Hsp27; the cell cycle phosphatase cdc25; the transcription factor AATF; and LIMK. MK2 has a role in a number of physiological processes including, inflammation, actin remodeling, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

Activation of ARE proteins by MK2 results in the stabilization and translation of mRNA, including that of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, therefore increasing proinflammatory cytokine production and secretion. MK2 has been shown to be essential for LPS-induced TNF-α production, so may be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. MK2 may also have a role in the neuroinflammation exhibited in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. For example MK2-deficient mice have been shown to exhibit attenuated neuroinflammation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

MK2 is also a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer. It is activated by DNA damage, before phosphorylating cdc25, causing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. This gives the cell time to repair the damage to its DNA. MK2 depletion has been shown to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics against cancer cells in vitro. MK2 also phosphorylates the transcription factor AATF, which suppresses the expression of p53 pro-apoptotic target genes. Furthermore the phosphorylation of Hsp27 by MK2, inhibits its chaperone activity, resulting in actin polymerization and enhanced cell motility.

To view external sources of pharmacological information for MK2, please click here: IUPHAR Receptor Code

View all products for MK2 »
Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
MAPKAPK2 Human MAPKAPK2 NM_004759 P49137
Mouse Mapkapk2 NM_008551 P49138
Rat Mapkapk2 NM_178102 NP_835203

Literature for MK2

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
Request copy | Download PDF | View all Product Guides & Listings
Cancer Research Product Guide
Immunology Product Listing

A collection of over 190 products for immunology research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Chemokine and Cytokine Signaling
  • Chemotaxis
  • Complement System
  • Immune Cell Signaling
  • Inflammation
Request copy | Download PDF | View all Product Guides & Listings
Immunology Product Listing
Kinases Product Listing

A collection of over 400 products for kinase research, the listing includes inhibitors of:

  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Protein Kinases A, C, D and G
  • PI-3 Kinase, Akt and mTOR
  • MAPK Signaling
  • Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases
Request copy | Download PDF | View all Product Guides & Listings
Kinases Product Listing

Quick Order

Find multiple products by catalog number

divider line

Kinase Inhibitor Toolbox

80 Kinase inhibitors
pre-dissolved in DMSO

Kinase Inhibitor Toolbox

Includes many of the latest kinase inhibitors to become commercially available. Covers a wide range of kinase targets including EGFR, MAPK and CDK.

divider line

Kinases Product Listing

Kinases Product Listing

Our Kinase listing highlights over 400 products for kinase research. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

Immunology Guide

Immunology Product Listing

Our Immunology listing highlights over 190 products for immunology research. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

divider line

LinkedIn Updates

Follow Tocris on LinkedIn

Follow us on LinkedIn!

Visit our LinkedIn page for the latest Tocris news, events and updates.