Trace Amine 1 Receptor

Supporting information

The trace amine 1 (TA1) receptor (also known as the trace amine-associated receptor 1, TAAR1) is a class A GPCR that is activated by endogenous trace amines such as β-phenylethylamine, tyramine and octopamine. Trace amines differ from classic biogenic amines, such as serotonin and histamine, in that they are present only at trace levels due to rapid hydrolysis by monoamine oxidase. The role of trace amines in vertebrates is not yet fully understood, but neuromodulatory functions have been proposed.

The TA1 receptor belongs to a family of GPCRs known as the trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), with the gene TAAR1 encoding the TA1 receptor. While members of this family show homology to aminergic receptors, they do not all exhibit high affinity for trace amines; thus far, only the TA1 receptor has been de-orphaned. It is predicted that there are five other functional TAAR genes in humans and a further nine genes in mice and rats.

TA1 receptors are widely distributed throughout the human central nervous system, with low levels of expression in the amygdala and trace levels in the cerebellum, hippocampus and hypothalamus, as well as in some peripheral tissues, such as the kidneys and lungs. In mice, TA1 expression has been identified in the amygdala and in monoaminergic nuclei, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus. TA1 receptors have been implicated in the etiology of depression, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

To view external sources of pharmacological information for Trace Amine 1 Receptor, please click here: IUPHAR Receptor Code and BJP Guide

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
TAAR1 Human TAAR1 NM_138327 Q96RJ0
Mouse Taar1 NM_053205 Q923Y8
Rat Taar1 NM_134328 Q923Y9

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