NADPH Oxidase

Supporting information

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are multi-subunit enzyme complexes that transfer electrons across biological membranes and catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidases use NADPH as an electron donor in the reduction of molecular oxygen to form superoxide anion radicals. These enzymes have been found in virtually all tissues and have been shown to mediate a variety of responses, including cell growth and apoptosis, angiogenesis, innate immunity, regulation of the extracellular matrix, and thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

There are seven members of the NADPH oxidase family, all of which differ in their catalytic subunit and tissue distribution. NOX1 is found in colon and vascular cells which function in host defence and cell growth; NOX2 is present in phagocytes and involved in respiration; NOX3 is found in the inner ear; NOX4 is widely distributed and NOX5 is a calcium-dependent homolog mainly expressed in lymphoid tissues. Additional members of the NADPH oxidase family include the DUOX proteins, which were identified from the thyroid gland and contain a putative peroxidase domain. In addition to the thyroid gland, DUOX1 is also found in airway epithelia and the prostate whilst DUOX2 is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract.

ROS derived from NADPH oxidase enzymes are critical for normal physiological responses, but also contribute to a growing number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer and respiratory syndromes.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
NADPH oxidase 1 Human NOX1 NP_008983.2 Q9Y5S8
Mouse Nox1 NM_172203 NP_757340
Rat Nox1 NM_053683 NP_446135
Cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide (NOX2) Human CYBB NM_000397 P04839
Mouse Cybb NM_007807 NP_031833
Rat Cybb NM_023965 NP_076455
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