Histone Acetyltransferases

Supporting information

Histone Acetyltransferases (HATs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the acetylation of lysine residues on histone protein tails. This post-translational modification involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to form ε-N-acetyl lysine. The reverse reaction is carried out by histone deacetylases (HDACs).

Acetylation of key lysine residues on histone proteins is an important epigenetic regulator of chromatin architecture, and therefore gene transcription. Histone acetylation levels have been associated with an open chromatin structure, yet specific marks - including acetylated histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K19) - have been linked to chromatin condensation. Since chromatin architecture directly regulates transcriptional activation, both histone acetylation and histone deacetylation have major influences on the control of cell fate. As a result, dysregulation of chromatin acetylation has been linked to the development of cancer and inflammation.

In addition to altering DNA accessibility, histone acetylation also facilitates the recruitment of bromodomain-containing proteins. Bromodomains are highly conserved protein interaction modules, found in many chromatin remodeling proteins, which recognize and bind to ε-N-acetyl lysine motifs. If histone acetyltransferases are the "writers" of acetylated lysine motifs, and histone deacetylases are the "erasers", bromodomains can be considered to be the "readers" of these epigenetic marks.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Histone acetyltransferase 1 Human HAT1 NM_003642 O14929
Mouse Hat1 NM_026115 Q8BY71
Rat Hat1 NM_001009657 Q5M939
K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2A Human KAT2A NM_021078 Q92830
Mouse Kat2a NM_020004 Q9JHD2
Rat Kat2a NM_001107050 D4ACX5
View all Histone Acetyltransferase Gene Data »

Literature for Histone Acetyltransferases

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Epigenetics Scientific Review

Our Epigenetics review gives an overview of the development of chemical probes for epigenetic targets, and discusses their biological effects. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Epigenetics Research Bulletin

The epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets. View PDF today.

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