Carbonic Anhydrases

Supporting information

Carbonic anhydrases (EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions.

There are several different carbonic anhydrase isoforms; these can be broadly grouped into cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), mitochondrial (CA VA, CA VB), secreted (CA VI) and membrane-associated (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV) carbonic anhydrases. The functions of the remaining carbonic anhydrases are yet to be elucidated.

Expression of the membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, CA IX, has been reported in hypoxic tumors where its activity is linked to promoting survival of tumor cells and aiding cancer progression. This is thought to occur through the carbonic anhydrase-mediated production of bicarbonate ions, which neutralizes the abnormally acidic pH of the extracellular environment induced during hypoxia. Furthermore, as CA IX is a hypoxia- and HIF-1-inducible enzyme, its expression can be used as a biomarker for hypoxic tumors.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Carbonic anhydrase I Human CA1 NM_001738 P00915
Mouse Car1 NM_009799 P13634
Rat Car1 NM_00107660 B0BNN3
Carbonic anhydrase II Human CA2 NM_000067 P00918
Mouse Car2 NM_009801 P00920
Rat Car2 NM_019291 P27139
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Literature for Carbonic Anhydrases

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