Carbonic anhydrases (EC 18.104.22.168) are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions.
There are several different carbonic anhydrase isoforms; these can be broadly grouped into cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), mitochondrial (CA VA, CA VB), secreted (CA VI) and membrane-associated (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV) carbonic anhydrases. The functions of the remaining carbonic anhydrases are yet to be elucidated.
Expression of the membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, CA IX, has been reported in hypoxic tumors where its activity is linked to promoting survival of tumor cells and aiding cancer progression. This is thought to occur through the carbonic anhydrase-mediated production of bicarbonate ions, which neutralizes the abnormally acidic pH of the extracellular environment induced during hypoxia. Furthermore, as CA IX is a hypoxia- and HIF-1-inducible enzyme, its expression can be used as a biomarker for hypoxic tumors.View all products for Carbonic Anhydrases »
|Gene||Species||Gene Symbol||Gene Accession No.||Protein Accession No.|
|Carbonic anhydrase I||Human||CA1||NM_001738||P00915|
|Carbonic anhydrase II||Human||CA2||NM_000067||P00918|
|View all Carbonic Anhydrase Gene Data »|
Literature for Carbonic Anhydrases
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