Supporting information

Autotaxin (also known as nucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 2, NPP2) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D activity and is the primary enzyme responsible for generating lysophosphatidic acid (LPA).

Autotaxin activity encourages cell growth, survival, migration and angiogenesis via its synthesis of LPA and because of this, autotaxin is a target of interest for cancer therapy. Increased expression levels of autotaxin are often observed in several different malignancies; upregulation of autotaxin also correlates with the cancer cells' invasiveness.

Originally thought to be a transmembrane protein, autotaxin is a secreted enzyme produced by a variety of tissues that exhibits both lysophospholipase D and phosphodiesterase activity. It is considered a prometastatic enzyme due to its role in the stimulation of tumor cell motility. In addition to LPA, autotaxin can also generate sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Both LPA and S1P selectively inhibit autotaxin activity without affecting NPP1, which is closely structurally related. Two other members of the NPP family (NPP1 and NPP3) lack lysophospholipase D activity and fulfill different physiological functions.

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Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Human ENPP2 NM_001040092 Q13822
Rat Enpp2 NM_057104 NP_476445

Literature for Autotaxin

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