Autophagy

More Information »Autophagy is a process by which a cell breaks down macromolecules in response to starvation or stress signals. While it is closely linked with apoptosis, autophagy is primarily characterized as a catabolic mechanism by which cellular energy homeostasis is maintained.

Autophagy Products

Inhibitors
Cat.No.
Product Name / Activity
1334 Bafilomycin A1
H+-ATPase (vacuolar) inhibitor; also inhibits autophagy
1544 (±)-Bay K 8644
L-type Ca2+ channel activator; inhibits autophagy
4109 Chloroquine diphosphate
Inhibits apoptosis and autophagy
2656 Concanamycin A
H+-ATPase (vacuolar) inhibitor
4417 DBeQ
Selective p97 ATPase inhibitor; blocks autophagosome maturation
4545 E 64d
Cathepsin inhibitor; interferes with autolysosomal digestion
2473 GW 4064
Selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist; suppresses autophagy in nutrient-deprived hepatocytes
5648 Hydroxychloroquine sulfate
Autophagy inhibitor; also TLR9 inhibitor
1130 LY 294002 hydrochloride
Prototypical PI 3-kinase inhibitor; inhibits autophagic sequestration
3977 3-Methyladenine
Class III PI 3-kinase inhibitor; also inhibits autophagy
5153 ML 240
ATP-competitive inhibitor of p97 ATPase; impairs autophagosome maturation
1228 Nocodazole
Microtubule inhibitor; inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion
1190 Pepstatin A
Protease inhibitor; interferes with autolysosomal digestion
5197 Spautin 1
Inhibits autophagy; USP10 and USP13 inhibitor
1097 Taxol
Promotes assembly and inhibits disassembly of microtubules
1256 Vinblastine sulfate
Disrupts microtubules; inhibits autophagosome maturation
1232 Wortmannin
Potent, irreversible inhibitor of PI 3-kinase. Also inhibitor of PLK1
4686 Xanthohumol
Valosin-containing protein (VCP) inhibitor; impairs autophagosome maturation
Activators
Cat.No.
Product Name / Activity
1234 A23187, free acid
Causes ER stress; can be used to induce autophagy in mammalian cells
4095 Amiodarone hydrochloride
Causes mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death; stimulates autophagy
4846 Apicidin
Potent histone deacetylase inhibitor; induces autophagy
1231 Brefeldin A
Causes ER stress; induces autophagy in mammalian cells
4098 Carbamazepine
Reduces inositol levels; induces autophagy
0690 Clonidine hydrochloride
α2 agonist and I1 ligand; thought to enhance autophagy
1126 Dexamethasone
Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid; also induces autophagy in ALL cell lines
3093 Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride
Induces autophagy via an AMPK inhibition-independent mechanism
3993 EB 1089
Vitamin D receptor agonist; induces autophagy in MCF-7 cells
4808 FK 866 hydrochloride
Non-competitive and potent NAMPT inhibitor; induces apoptosis and autophagy
0741 GF 109203X
Protein kinase C inhibitor
4835 GPP 78 hydrochloride
NAMPT inhibitor; also induces autophagy
0681 L-690,330
Inositol monophosphatase inhibitor; induces autophagy independently of mTOR inhibition
1391 NF 449
Highly selective P2X1 antagonist; Gsα-selective antagonist
4079 Niclosamide
STAT3 inhibitor; also inhibits mTORC1 signaling. Stimulates autophagy in vitro
0600 Nimodipine
Ca2+ channel blocker (L-type)
0601 Nitrendipine
Ca2+ channel blocker (L-type)
4849 3-Nitropropionic acid
Irreversible mitochondrial respiratory complex II inhibitor; induces autophagy
2930 PI 103 hydrochloride
Inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, mTOR and DNA-PK
1267 Pifithrin-α hydrobromide
p53 inhibitor
1292 Rapamycin
mTOR inhibitor; induces autophagy
0790 Rilmenidine hemifumarate
α2 agonist and I1 ligand; thought to enhance autophagy
1610 Rottlerin
Stimulates autophagy
4989 Salirasib
Ras inhibitor; also induces autophagy
4297 SMER 28
Positive regulator of autophagy
2706 Temozolomide
DNA-methylating antitumor agent; also induces autophagy
1138 Thapsigargin
Causes ER stress; can be used to induce autophagy in mammalian cells
4247 Torin 1
Potent and selective mTOR inhibitor; induces autophagy in HeLa cells
3516 Tunicamycin
Causes ER stress; can be used to induce autophagy
2815 Valproic acid, sodium salt
Reduces inositol levels; induces autophagy
0654 Verapamil hydrochloride
Ca2+ channel blocker (L-type)
Other
Cat.No.
Product Name / Activity
5067 MRT 68601 hydrochloride
Potent TBK1 inhibitor; also inhibits autophagy
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