M4 receptors are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family which are found mostly bound to Gi proteins, generally leading to inhibitory effects. They are one of five muscarinic receptors that act to control the metabotropic functions of acetylcholine in the CNS. M4 receptors are densely populated in the striatum and the lungs.
Activation of the M4 receptor leads to several responses, including the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. One of the primary roles of M4 receptor activation is the indirect mediation of dopaminergic neurotransmission via its cholinergic activity. M4 activation has shown to inhibit D1-induced locomotor stimulation. Other functions of M4 receptor stimulation include wound healing and hair follicle cycling.
M4 receptors are involved in pathological processes including Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, and have also been implicated in several mood disorders including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The targeting of the M4 receptor has been suggested to have therapeutic potential for the treatment of these conditions.View all products for M4 Receptors »
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Literature for M4 Receptors
A collection of over 450 products for G protein-coupled receptors, the listing includes research tools for the study of:
- Rhodopsin-like Receptors
- Secretin-like Receptors
- Glutamate Receptors
- Frizzled Receptors
- GPCR Signaling
Written by Alan Palmer and updated in 2015, this poster summarizes structural and functional changes observed in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as classic AD drug targets. The hypotheses behind the neurobiology of AD are discussed alongside the different stages in disease progression. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | Download PDF | View all posters
Cardiovascular disease remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world and therefore this therapeutic area continues to be of great interest to researchers. This poster highlights the key GPCRs regulating vascular reactivity.Request copy | Download PDF | View all posters
Written by E. Clea Warburton and Zafar Bashir, this poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression. The role of different neurotransmitters involved in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity are also summarized. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | Download PDF | View all posters
Written by Jacob Ballon et al, this poster highlights key signaling pathways implicated in the development of schizophrenia, and the most promising strategies in novel drug development. Current research targets include cholinergic and glutamatergic signaling pathways, and the D2 receptor. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | View all posters