Ca2+-ATPase

Supporting information

Ca2+-ATPases function to maintain a low cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ ions. They are high affinity, low capacitance transporters and complement the actions of the low affinity, high capacitance Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Ca2+-ATPases are P-type ATPases and there are two variants: a plasma membrane-bound Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) and a sacroplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA).

PMCA exists as a dimer within the plasma membrane of a wide variety of cell types and, using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis, transports Ca2+ ions out of the cell against the concentration gradient. SERCA is located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells and transports Ca2+ ions from the cytoplasm into the SR lumen during muscle relaxation. PMCA transports one Ca2+ ion per ATP molecule hydrolyzed, whilst SERCA can transport two. PMCAs are regulated by calmodulin and the phospholipid composition of the surrounding plasma membrane. Furthermore, PMCA can be phosphorylated by PKA, PKC, Src and FAK at specific residues to influence activity.

So far, only one human pathology has been linked to PMCA defects - deafness. However, SERCA defects have been implicated in a wide array of pathologies including heart failure, sperm motility defects, cataract formation, carcinogenesis, diabetes, and cardiac hypertension and hypertrophy.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
SERCA1 Human ATP2A1 NM_004320 O14983
Mouse Atp2a1 NM_007504 Q8R429
Rat Atp2a1 NM_058213 Q64578
SERCA2 Human ATP2A2 NM_001681 P16615
Mouse Atp2a2 NM_001110140 O55143
Rat Atp2a2 NM_017290 P11507
View all Ca2+-ATPase Gene Data »

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