Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

Supporting information

Protein Arginine methyltransferases, or PRMTs, are a family of enyzmes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to arginine residues on histones. PRMTs belong to the histone methyltransferase group of enzymes, which also includes lysine methyltransferases. They are also closely related in biological activity to the DNA methyltransferases and are ubiquitously expressed. Histone methylation of arginine residues occurs predominantly on histones H2A, H3 and H4, and multiple methyl groups may be added to each residue.

Histones represent the major protein component of chromatin, around which DNA is coiled within the nucleus. Modification of histone protein by methylation induces chromatin remodeling which in turn alters gene expression. Histone methylation is an integral epigenetic process during development that represents an important mechanism of transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Dysregulation of histone methylation has been implicated in diseases, including cancer.

The epigenetic effects of histone methylation are dependent on the residue undergoing methylation, the degree of methylation and the modifying enzyme. PRMT methylation of histones may induce or inhibit transcription. In addition to histone methylation PRMTs have other effects including methylating and modulating transcription factors and effects on RNA stability and splicing

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 Human PRMT1 NM_001207042 Q99873
Mouse Prmt1 NP_062804 Q9JIF0
Rat Prmt1 NM_024363 Q63009
Protein arginine methyltransferase 2 Human PRMT2 NM_001535 P55345
Mouse Prmt2 NP_001071106 Q9R144
Rat Prmt2 NM_001025144 Q6AYB9
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Literature for Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

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