GPR55 is a non-CB1/CB2 receptor that exhibits affinity for endogenous, plant and synthetic cannabinoids. Originally designated an orphan receptor, GPR55 is now thought to be a functional receptor mediating the effects of ligands known to be inactive at CB1 and CB2, e.g. palmitoylethanolamide. GPR55 couples to Gα13 and can mediate activation of the small G proteins rhoA, cdc42 and rac1.
GPR55 mRNA is expressed in the brain, most abundantly in the caudate nucleus and putamen, with lesser levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, pons, cerebellum and frontal cortex. Peripherally, GPR55 mRNA is present in the spleen, adrenals and parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Putative physiological roles of GPR55 include pain signaling, control of vascular tone and inflammation. The human GPR55 receptor gene is localized to chromosome 2q36.3.
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Literature for GPR55
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