BMP and Other Activin Receptors

Supporting information

Activin receptors transduce signals carried by the TGF-β family of ligands. Such ligands include activin and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of this family are involved in a range of processes, including embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily (excluding BMP1). Primarily characterized by their effects on bone and cartilage formation, research has further elucidated a role for BMPs in cell growth and development.

There are currently 20 known BMP isoforms, which form dimers in order to bind a tetrameric receptor complex composed of type I and type II BMP receptor subunits. ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6 function as BMP type I receptors, the latter of which are structurally similar. Three BMP type II receptors have also been identified: BMPR2, and type II and IIB activin receptors (ACVR2A and ACVR2B). ALK2, ACVR2A and ACVR2B also function as receptors for activins.

Signal transduction is continued through Smad proteins. Receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) are phosphorylated by activation of type I receptors and form heteromeric complexes with Co-Smads. These complexes regulate the transcription of target genes in the nucleus.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
ACVR1
(ALK2)
Human ACVR1 NM_001105
Rat Acvr1 NM_024486 P80201
BMPR1A
(ALK3)
Human BMPR1A NM_004329 BC028383
Mouse Bmpr1a NM_009758 P36895
Rat Bmpr1a NM_0303849 Q78EA7
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Literature for BMP and Other Activin Receptors

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