RNA and DNA polymerases are enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of RNA and DNA respectively.
In eukaryotes, there are four forms of RNA polymerase (I-IV), which are classified on the basis of the type of RNA they produce. During transcription, these enzymes direct the synthesis of a RNA chain complementary to the DNA template, until a termination signal is reached. RNA polymerase activity is tightly controlled throughout the initiation, elongation and termination phases of transcription by diverse regulatory signals ranging from protein factors to small molecule inhibitors. Due to its intergral role in transcription, RNA polymerase also represents an important target in epigenetics research.
There are at least fifteen different DNA polymerases known in eukaryotes. These enzymes have roles in DNA repair, as well as DNA replication. DNA polymerases cannot initiate de novo DNA synthesis; they require a primer, formed by the enzyme primase. DNA polymerases are unidirectional and can only elongate DNA chains in a 5' to 3' direction. A unique feature of some of these enzymes is their 'proofreading' ability. DNA polymerases I, II and III have 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and they can remove incorrectly newly incorporated nucleotides. This makes the error rate during DNA replication very low, hence maintaining the integrity of the genome.View all products for RNA/DNA Polymerase »
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Literature for RNA/DNA Polymerase
A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:
- Cancer Metabolism
- Epigenetics in Cancer
- Receptor Signaling
- Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
- Invasion and Metastasis
Written by Susanne Müller-Knapp and Peter J. Brown, this review gives an overview of the development of chemical probes for epigenetic targets, as well as the impact of these tool compounds being made available to the scientific community. In addition, their biological effects are also discussed. Epigenetic compounds available from Tocris are listed.Request copy | Download PDF | View all reviews