Translocation, Exocytosis & Endocytosis

Supporting information

Once proteins are translated, they must be directed to the appropriate localization within, or outside of the cell.

Protein translocation occurs either during translation (co-translational translocation) or after translation (post-translational translocation) and depends on the N'-terminal signal-recognition particle (SRP). The SRP interacts with a SRP receptor on the ER and promotes transport of proteins into the ER lumen where they are prepared for secretion.

Exocytosis is a process by which proteins are released from a cell into the extracellular matrix. Newly synthesized proteins are incorporated into transport vesicles within the ER lumen, and these fuse with the cis-golgi. Cisternal migration progressively moves the transport vesicles towards the trans-golgi cisternae. Here, the vesicles move to and fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing the newly synthesized protein.

Endocytosis is the opposite process to exocytosis and involves internalization of proteins. In general, this process involves the formation of clathrin-coated pits on the plasma membrane, which then pinch off to become vesicles inside the cell. Sequentially, the vesicles fuse with early, then late, endosomes where the proteins are processed.

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