Cytokines

Supporting information

Cytokines are proteinaceous signaling compounds that are major mediators of the immune response. They control many different cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis but are also involved in several pathophysiological processes including viral infections and autoimmune diseases.

Cytokines are synthesized under various stimuli by a variety of cells of both the innate (monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells) and adaptive (T- and B-cells) immune systems.

Cytokines can be classified into two groups: pro- and anti-inflammatory. Proinflammatory cytokines, including IFNγ, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, are predominantly derived from the innate immune cells and Th1 cells. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-10, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5, are synthesized from Th2 immune cells.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
IL-1α Human IL1A NM_000575 P01583
Mouse Il1a NM_010554 P01582
Rat Il1a NM_017019 P16598
IL-1β Human IL1B NM_000576 P01584
Mouse Il1b NM_008361 P10749
Rat Il1b NM_031512 Q5BKB0
View all Cytokine Gene Data »

Literature for Cytokines

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
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Cancer Research Product Guide
Immunology Product Listing

A collection of over 190 products for immunology research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Chemokine and Cytokine Signaling
  • Chemotaxis
  • Complement System
  • Immune Cell Signaling
  • Inflammation
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Immunology Product Listing
Angiogenesis Life Science Poster

Written by Yongping Crawford and Napoleone Ferrara, this poster highlights major targets for antiangiogenic therapy, namely tumor- and stromal cell-derived pathways. Intrinsic and acquired resistance are described; antiangiogenic therapies targeting the VEGF pathway are also summarized. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Angiogenesis Life Science Poster
Asthma Life Science Poster

Written by Peter Barnes, this poster highlights key pathways in the development of asthma. Special focus is given to new therapies used to treat asthma, including those currently in clinical development; treatment pathways include lipid mediator inhibitors, cytokine modulators and mast cell-directed therapies. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Asthma Life Science Poster
Pain Life Science Poster

Written by Grant D. Nicol and Michael R. Vasko, this poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

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Pain Life Science Poster

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Cancer Research Product Guide

Cancer Research Product Guide

Our Cancer Research Guide highlights over 750 products for cancer research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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Immunology Guide

Immunology Product Listing

Our Immunology listing highlights over 190 products for immunology research. Request copy or view PDF today.

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New Therapies and Challenges in Asthma

Written by Peter J. Barnes

Asthma Life Science Poster

Our Asthma poster highlights key pathways and new therapies used to treat asthma, including those currently in clinical development. Request copy today.

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VEGF Pathway & Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

Written by N. Ferrara & Y. Crawford

Angiogenesis Life Science Poster

A summary of antiangiogenic therapies targeting the VEGF pathway and the mechanisms of therapy resistance. Request copy today.

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Peripheral Sensitization

Written by Grant D. Nicol and Michael R. Vasko

Pain Life Science Poster

Our Peripheral Sensitization poster gives a summary of the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. Request copy or view PDF today.

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