G Proteins (Small)

Supporting information

Small G proteins (small GTPases) are homologous to Gα proteins and are often referred to as the Ras proto-oncogene superfamily. The Ras superfamily contains over 100 small GTPases grouped into eight families; Ras, Rho, Rab, Rap, Arf, Ran, Rheb and Rad. Small GTPases regulate a wide variety of processes in the cell, including growth, differentiation, movement and lipid vesicle transport.

Like Gα proteins, small GTPases alternate between an 'on' state (bound to GTP) and an 'off' state (bound to GDP). This cyclic process requires guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Small GTPases are the downstream effectors of most receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and are linked via two proteins, GRB2 and SOS. They are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades including the MAPK pathway, through interactions with Raf kinase. Normally, activation of small GTPases is induced by ligand binding to a RTK. In many transformed cells activating mutations of GTPases, often Ras, produce a cellular response in the absence of a ligand, thus promoting malignant progression.

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Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
H-Ras Human HRAS NM_176795 P01112
Mouse Hras1 NM_001130444 Q61411
Rat Hras NM_001098241 P20171
K-Ras Human KRAS NM_033360 P01116
Mouse Kras NM_021284 P32883
Rat Kras NM_031515 P08644
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Literature for G Proteins (Small)

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